Family 

  • Created by: Megan657
  • Created on: 11-01-19 09:32
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  • Unit 1: Theories of the family
    • Are men and equal equal in the family in the UK today?
      • Over years men and women have become more equal, however there is still a difference
    • Are children all treated the same around the world?
      • No not all children are treated the same, in England we have rights to:
        • Education until 18
        • Healthcare free until 19 years old
        • Specific consumer market for children
        • Government have powers to protect children
    • Family types:
      • Extended: living with aunt, uncle, grandparents, cousins
      • Nuclear family: basic family
      • Blended or family: Remarried
    • Marriage types:
      • Monogamy-two individuals
      • Serial monogamy - a series of monogamous marriages
      • Arranged monogamy: Arranged by parents to match their children
      • Civil partnership-legal recognition to the relationships of same sex marriage, became legal in 2014
      • Polygamy-marriage to more than one partner at once
      • Polygyny- One husband and two or more wives
      • Polyandry-One wife and two or more husbands
    • Beanpole Family Brannen (2003)
      • A multi generational extended family, which is long and thin - less aunts and uncles as people are having less children.
      • More common due to the ageing population and couples deciding to have fewer children
      • This could be three, four, five generation families.
    • What are the key functions of a family?
      • To create a safe environment  to socialise the children
      • To reproduce the next generation
      • To provide warmth and comfort for the children
      • Sexual - within the family sexuality can be expressed in an approved way ( within a relationship )
    • Murdock (1949) suggests that the family has 4 main function:
      • Reproduction - the family provides stability for the production and rearing of children
      • Socialisation - agents of primary socialisation, children learn acceptable behaviour and the culture of the wider society. This helps embed value consensus and a set of shared beliefs - central to maintaining a stable society
      • Economic - the family supports the members, looking after their basic needs e.g. food and shelter
    • Parsons (1951)
      • Parsons saw primary socialisation as the internalisation of societies culture.
      • Parsons saw the family as factories which produce human personalities
      • Children learn the customs, traditions,history and values of a society.
    • Consensus
      • Consensus theories argue that the changes that have occured in society are positive
      • These theorists also claim that society is in broad agreement, in other words, people share a sense of what is right and wrong as well as individuals having a strong sense of belonging to society
      • Consensus theories are often said to have an optimistic view, it is often claimed that consensus theories are in danger of overlooking serious problems in society.
    • Roles in the family
      • Male-instrumental role, breadwinner, leads to stress and anxiety and leads to a risk of destabilization of his personality
      • Females-  expressive role, provide warmth, security, provides the emotional support and they prevent destabilization through love
    • The class system:
      • Upper class -“Rich people” - inherited titles or wealth, education at elite private school, end up in jobs like government, top accountant, top lawyer etc
      • Middle class - University education - lawyer, accountant, doctor
    • Conflict
      • Conflict theories regard society as being unequal, resulting in the oppression of a particular group or groups. These theories focus on the power that some groups have over other groups.
      • Conflict theorists argue that the solution to these inequalities is large-scale social change. Because conflict theorists argue that society is inherently unfair, they are often criticised for failing to acknowledge the positive aspects of society.
    • Marxist
      • The bourgeoisie own the means of production e.g. factories and they exploit the proletariat who only own their ability to work
      • The ruling class use the working class to produce goods and services and keep the profits for themselves
      • Capitalism encourages the private ownership of profit so all individuals are working to achieve this goal
      • This system creates inequalities between the social classes.
      • Based on the works of Karl Marx (1818-1883)
      • Marx suggested that there were two classes under a capitalist society, the ruling class (bourgeoisie) and the working class (proletariat)
      • Marx said that the working class accepted their inequality and their oppressed position, he calls this false class consciousness – the idea that people are not aware of the true extent of their exploitation.
      • Rich get richer, poor get poorer
    • Socialisation
      • Marxists argue that individuals learn capitalist ideology through socialisation, a process of internalising norms and values throughout life.
      • This process is vitally important in maintaining and encouraging capitalism, as it prevents people from questioning their position and makes sure that they continue to work hard.
    • Marxism and  the family
      • Early Marxists like Engels (1820-95) believed that the monogamous nuclear family was necessary to pass on wealth and property to heirs
      • This idea of monogamy was ideal as it meant fathers were sure of the paternity of their children so their wealth was passed on to the right people
      • Private ownership is central to capitalism
      • Althusser (1971) argued that the family was an ideological state apparatus.
      • By socialising this ideology though the family, the ruling class keep control and the working class accept their dominant norms and values.
      • The nuclear family performs several important functions
      • The bourgeoisie can make a profit and the family is fixated on the latest consumer goods so the inequalities of capitalism go unchallenged.
      • Families also support capitalism by providing unpaid labour and socialising the next generation of workers
      • women provide emotional support for workers to help them to deal with the exploitation they may experience at work
      • Women act like a sponge, soaking up men’s worries so they go back to work refreshed and ready to work.

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