Families and Households Overview :)

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  • Families and Households.
    • Functionalist view.
      • Believes that the family provides socialization for children.
        • Thinks that the nuclear family is the best family type for socialization.
        • Also, the Warm Bath Theory -Parsons.
      • Sees society as a consensus, which could be criticsed as rose-tinted.
        • Organic analogy -Parsons.
      • Murdock says that the family provides Sexual Reproduction Education & Economic functions.
      • Parsons says that the family provides primary socialisation and the stabalisation of adult personalities.
        • These adult personalities are expressive role (women) and instrumental role (men).
    • New Right view.
      • Believes that the nuclear family provides the best care for children. Otherwise they will grow up to be criminals.
        • Think that many family types that aren't nuclear are "married to the state". This means that they are too reliant on benefits.
      • New Right is often criticised for being out-dated and harsh.
      • Believe that homosexual couples only adopt children as trophies, to prove that they can do it.
    • Feminist view.
      • Marxist feminists argue that the main cause of oppression is through capitalism.
        • Ansley- women are takers of ****.
      • Liberal feminists say that women's oppression is being gradually overcome. March of Progress.
        • This is through things like the Equal Pay Act of 1970 which allowed women to be more financially independent.
        • Liberal feminists mainly focus on social policies and laws when it comes to gender inequality.
          • This is through things like the Equal Pay Act of 1970 which allowed women to be more financially independent.
      • Radical feminists still say that patriarchy exists.
        • This is shown through things like the division of labour, where women are still oppressed because they are expected to fill out traditional roles of comforting men and caring for children, even if they can work too.
        • Normally opt for political lesbianism, as they believe same-sex relationships are the only way that women's oppression can be avoided within families.
      • Typically believes that the family is there to exploit women.
      • Difference feminists simply look at the oppression of women in third world countries because they take a micro approach.
    • Marxist view.
      • Believe that the woman is a glorified prostitute (Engels)
      • Believe that the children are simply inheritors of property and this benefits capitalism, because it keeps the working class out from the middle class.
      • Zaretsky says that the family produces goods for very little wages, and is then later encouraged to buy these products with their earnings, which benefits the Bourgeoisie.
        • The family encoursages this, which is false class consciousnes, and they unknowingly exploit their children by justifying their positions within society.
    • Social Policy.
      • Equal Pay Act (1970)
        • Less married couples and more single person households because women can afford to live by themselves without getting married.
      • Divorce Reform Act
        • Less Empty-shell Marriages and more Single Parents Families because women could now leave love-less marriages and either take their children with them or leave them with their fathers.
      • Same Sex Couples Act
        • Allowed more Same-Sex Family types because now they could legally marry so more felt comfortable, also less nuclear families because fewer homosexuals felt like they had to hide behind heterosexual relationships.
      • Married Person's Tax Allowance.
        • More Nuclear Family type because marriage and having children was encouraged by this..
    • Demographics
      • Marriage
      • Divorce
      • Cohabitation
      • Singlehood
      • Birth
      • Fertility
      • Death
      • Migration
    • Family diversity.
      • Post modernist Carol Smart recommends using the term personal life instead of family.
        • She thinks that bonds are more important than biology, this basically means that people have the right to choose who their 'family' is.
      • Rapoports et al (1982) investigated the different types of family diversity.
        • Organisational diversity is the different set ups within the families.
        • Cultural diversity is the different types of family based on ethnicity or religion.
        • Social Class  diversity is the roles that are adopted within families that differ depending on the social class.
        • Life Stage diversity is the different types of household and role that occur throught someones lifetime during the different stages.
          • Life course analysis.
        • Generational diversity is the differences between the generations, like what type of family type might be acceptable.
    • Division of Labour
      • Elizabeth Bott said that there were segregated conjugal roles (separate and traditional duties) and joint conjugal roles (shared duties)
        • Young & Wilmott - March of Progress.
          • There is now the symmetrical family.= egalitarian.
            • Elizabeth Bott said that there were segregated conjugal roles (separate and traditional duties) and joint conjugal roles (shared duties)
              • Young & Wilmott - March of Progress.
                • There is now the symmetrical family.= egalitarian.
        • The modern man is a myth -Anne Oakley.
          • Women still do more than men. And they do the dual burden (working and house work. Also the triple shift (working, housework and caring for children.
          • Dunne says the only solution is to be in a lesbian relationship, otherwise women will continue to be oppressed.
        • Edgell (1980) says that men make the very important decisions, both make the relatively important decisions, and the women alone make the less important decisions.
        • Mirrlees Black: 1 in 4 women are domestically abused.
          • Dobash & Dobash found that the majority of domestic violence incidents were due to a woman questioning her husband's authority.
      • Childhood.
        • De Mause says that childhood is improving because statistics of child abuse and abandonment was much higher in the past than it is now.
          • Chambers agrees with this and says children are "special people" who need extra care and protection.
            • Opie says that the evidence that childhood is improving comes from children's toys and songs.
              • Laws and age restrictions on things like drinking and consenting to sexual activity is some of the ways that children are protected.
                • Nick Lee argues with this and says that children are protected from media influences by the law.
        • Laws and age restrictions on things like drinking and consenting to sexual activity is some of the ways that children are protected.
          • Nick Lee argues with this and says that children are protected from media influences by the law.
        • Some people believe that childhood though, is either disappearing or getting worse,
          • Sue Palmer says that childhood is getting worse by arguing the idea of Toxic Childhood.
            • Technological and cultural changes are damaging children, by giving them poor social skills, obesity, and lazy lifestyles.
          • Postman says that childhood is disappearing by arguing the idea of Social Blurring.
            • The mass media and television has brought the adult world into the lives of children.

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