fall of tsar

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  • Reasons for the fall of the tsar/ power transfer to dual authority due to discontent in russia
    • WW1
      • food shortages:     labour shortages due to men conscripted   peasents hoarded rather than sold grain     food prioritised for army         food couldn't be transported to towns due to use of railways for war
      • soaring living costs:        gov't raised taxes for war shortages of manufactured goods and food led to higher prices-inflation        unemployment increased as non military factories forced to close
      • soldiers were under equipt and morale was low and were so obviously weak and losing
    • nicholas' personality
      • he believed he had complete divine authority to rule
      • he was stubborn and didn't like to share any of his real power w the duma- meaning Nicholas remained responsible for Russia's problems
      • he liked to take the approach of putting faith in god instead of fixing probelems
      • he undermined his ministers to stop anyone challenging his authority
    • opposition to Tsar
      • liberals
        • a loose collection of groups that favoured reform and  constituti-onal  monarchy inc. cadets and octobists
      • SRs
        • represented peasants
        • suffered from internal divisions, some were extremists and believed in political assassination
      • SDs
        • represented proletariat
        • split in 1903 into mensheviks and bolsheviks
    • Alexandra and Rasputin
      • Rasputin was trusted by the royal family and Alexandra encouraged Nicolas to listen to his advice
      • he became more powerful than some ministers at court, angering people
      • he had a reputation for sexual promiscuity, rumours of an affair spread, damaging Nicholas' authority


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