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  • Privation: failure to form an attachment
    • Institutionalisation
      • Hodges and Tizard
        • Followed a group of 65 British children from early life to adolesence
        • Placed in institution less than 4 month old, no attachments
        • Almost all experienced early emotional privation
        • Either adopted or restored
        • Restored less likely, adopted closely attached
        • Both had problems with peers
      • Rutter
        • Studied a group of about 100 Romanian orphans
        • Assesed at 4,6 and 11 years old
        • Children adopted before 6 showed normal emotional development
        • Adopted after 6 showed signs of disinhibited attachment
          • Over friendly with strangers and attention seeking
        • Long term consequences may be less severe of given chance to form
    • Case studies of privation
      • Genie
        • Couldn't speak, could barely walk, still in nappies age 13, beaten
        • 13 years old when she was discovered, in captivity for 10 years
        • No contact or communication- no attachment
        • Researcher, Curtis, fostered her but she was used for testing... no progress
      • Czech twins
        • Mum died, back at home with father at 18 months
        • Small unheated room, poorly fed, beaten
        • Found at age 7, in captivity for 5 and half years
        • Step mother was horrible, but they had each other
        • Special school made good progess, fostered, by 11 speech was normal, at 15 IQ normal
      • Evaluation of case studies
        • Strength= good for investigating something that would be unethical
        • Weakness= each one is so completely different that they cannot be generalised
        • Weakness= cause and effect can't be established


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