Factory Reform

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  • Factory Reform 1815-1848
    • 10 Hour Movement 1830
      • Humanitarian Richard Oastler published 'Slavery in Yorkshire'
      • Workers treated worse than victims of colonial slavery
      • Campaign for 10 hours a day for all workers
      • Support for the movement through Short Time Committees
      • Supported by John Fielden and Michael Sadler (Tory MP)
    • Royal Commission of Enquiry
      • Appointed by Parliament with Chadwick as chairman
      • Passed Lord Althorp's Factory Act 1833
      • Concluded 'there was a case for the interference on behalf of the children working in factories'
      • Had Utilitarian influence to uphold the laissez-faire principle, but to protect women and children
    • Lord Althorp's Factory Act 1833
      • Only applied to mills and textile factories
      • No children under 9 to be employed
      • Children aged 9-12 to work a max of 12 hours a day, and no more than 48 hours a week
      • Those aged 13-18 to work a maximum of 12 hours a day, and no more than 68 hours a week
      • Children aged 9-11 to receive 2 hours of schooling a day
    • Impact of the Act
      • Short Time Commission disappointed, but it was a breakthrough
      • It was widely ignored
      • Only 4 inspectors for the entire country
      • Owners still used children for cheap labour
      • Many parents lied about their child's age to get the much needed income
    • Graham's Act (Tories) 1844
      • 8-13: Work up to 8 hours
      • 13-18: Up to 12 hours
      • Compulsory fencing of textile machinery
      • No moving or cleaning machinery
    • 10 Hour Movement Bill passed in 1847- Fielden's Act
    • 1848: For women and under 18s, maximum working hours were 10
    • However, factory owners worked women and children in relays with men so they could keep factories open for 14-15 hours


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