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  • Factors affecting EWT accuracy
    • leading questions
      • loftus and palmer
        • experiment 1
          • laboratory experiment
            • independent measures design
            • 45 participants
            • shown traffic incidents
              • given a general account of what they'd seen and asked questions
            • critical question 'How fast were the cars going when they HIT/ SMASHED/ COLLIDED/ BUMPED OR CONTACTED
            • participants recall was affected by the iv (verb)
            • the word 'smashed' led to estimation highest speed and 'contacted' least
        • experiment 2
          • 150 students
          • independent measures design
          • shown films of traffic accidents
          • given a general account of what they'd seen
          • divided into groups of 50
            • 1st group asked 'how fast were the cars going when they hit each other'
            • 2nd group  'how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other'
            • 3rd group weren't asked a leading question as they were the control group
          • one week later they were asked questions about the traffic accidents
            • 'did you see any broken glass'
            • the verb smashed lead to higher speeds and participants being mislead by the broken glass
      • evaluation
        • lack in ecological validity
          • no emotional arousement
        • the DV was speeds reported, people have different schemes to different speeds (individual differences)
      • these experiments show
        • memory is affected by questioning technique
        • info acquired after the event can be merged with the original memory
    • Yuille and Cutshall 1986
      • 13 EW of a shooting in a street
      • natural experiment
      • EW questioned a few months after the incident
      • interview included a misleading questions about a busted headlight and  slightly different panel on the car.
      • the leading questions had no effect
      • shows us with emotional arousalment that EW more accurate and that anxiety of the shooting had no effect on accuracy
      • high ecological validity


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