Factors influencing fertility and mortality

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  • Factors influencing fertility
    • Economic
      • Fertility highest in LEDC
        • LEDC Children-workforce, breadwinners, subsistence farming or work in city, have to care for parents, have many to ensure some will survive
        • MEDC. More control, don't need children for economic reasons, availability of contraception, pension schemes, care facilities for elderly, IMR low-healthcare and vaccinations, education, women in employment, expensive chlldcare
    • Social
      • result of economic circumstance
      • MEDC- low TFR, ageing pop, No. of potential parents reduced, reducing overall births
        • Developments in health care decrease IMR
        • Female education,delayed marriages, contraception
      • LEDC-opposite e.g. China pop continued to grow even with 1child policy. Less Contraception available
    • Political
      • Gov influence on fertility. need to plan for future. Pro and anti- natalist policies. Financial Incentives, paid/unpaid maternity
    • Cultural
      • some traditions/cultures promote higher fertility-religion-Catholic Church-opposed to contraception- although importance of this is diminishing
      • Higher status for larger families/ prefer male children- for funeral rights. Status of women- if equal fertility is lower. Countries where men have many wives/ unequal right- fertility hiher
    • Environmental
      • tied closely to economic and social conditions. Remote areas- usually out migration from economically active sector- lowers fertility.if modern industry-ample jobs, youthful pop- higher fertility.
      • Higher pollution-lower fertility
      • Need for subsistence farming means higher fertility


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