Factors influencing developments in surgery

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  • Created on: 02-04-17 19:12
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  • Factors influencing developments in surgery
    • communication
      • pre-history
        • It’s difficult to understand exactly why some of the early surgical methods were carried out because there is not written evidence to prove any theories.
      • Ancient Egypt
        • Papyrus (a kind of paper) and a simpler and quicker form of writing (hieroglyphs) – ideas could be written down and passed on.
      • Ancient Greece
        • Medical writings from Greece, India, China, Egypt and Mesopotamia were collected together in the University Library of Alexandria. Eventually, there were 700,000 different items in the library.
      • The Roman Empire
        • There were many books written such as ‘De Medicina’ concerning the training of surgeons. Galen’s book ‘On Anatomy'.
      • The Middle Ages
        • People became surgeons by being apprenticed to another surgeon. Even women could become surgeons and a number did
          • Ideas about surgery were communicated in numerous medical books. Theodoric of Lucca also chronicled his experiences of surgery in other cultures.
      • The Medical Renaissance
        • Vesalius studied at universities Paris and Italy and read many of Galen’s ideas. Vesalius wrote his own book called ‘The Fabric of the Human Body’ this was well illustrated by artist.
          • Pare wrote a book ‘Works on Surgery.  Wiseman taught younger surgeons and wrote two lengthy books the most famous being ‘A Teatise on Wounds'
      • 1750?1900
        • Simpson wrote articles which led to other surgeons using chloroform.
      • The 20th Century
        • Wilhelm Rontgen published his findings on x?rays on 28th Dec 1895. It caused great public excitement and had an immediate impact on medicine.
    • Religion and Government
      • pre-history
        • Trephining – it was believed that making a hole in the skull would release evil spirits making you better.
      • ancient egypt
        • Belief in the afterlife led to embalming meaning that internal organs were explored.
        • Pharaohs doctors spent much of their time trying understand how to improve medical ideas.
      • Ancient Greece
        • Most Greek doctors believed it was wrong to dissect the dead.Government built a library with medical writings collected together.
      • The Roman Empire
        •  People didn’t question Galen for a long time as he was supported by the Christian Church because many of his ideas fitted in with their religious teachings.
      • The Middle Ages
        • People still following Galen’s ideas because they fit in with the Christian religion.
      • The Medical Renaissance
        • Richard Wiseman was surgeon to Charles II who supports his technique.
      • 1750?1900
        • There were moral and religious argument against using anaesthetics. Some people believed it was unnatural to ease the pain of childbirth because it was what God had intended
          • Dying from surgery increased after the discovery of anaesthetics which strengthened arguments against its use. Surgeons were not aware of the quantity to give to begin with.
            • Queen Victoria accepted the use of chloroform during the delivery of her eighth child in 1857. She publically praised ‘that blessed chloroform.’ This doomed any opposition to anaesthetics.
              • In recognition of the importance of all his work Lister was given the title of baronet in 1883 – becoming Baron Lister
  • The 20th Century
    • During WWI the government devoted resources to developing new surgical equipment.


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