Factors Affecting Prejudice & Discrimination

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  • Factors Affecting Prejudice & Discrimination
    • Situational Factors
      • Influences to be racist or sexist may come from parents, peers & group members
      • Conforming to social norms means we adopt set of values held by particular group or society
      • Attitudes learned by observation & intimidation (SLT) of their role models behaviour
      • Akrami 2009
        • Manipulated social norm on sexism questionnaire examining prejudice - stating discrimination of women was no longer a problem
        • Control group had same questionnaire without the comment - found changed social norm & personality factors all linked to prejudice
    • Personality Factors
      • Adorno et al
        • Prejudice is as a result of individual's personality type - piloted & developed questionnaire - F scale
        • Authoritarian Personality
          • Hostile to those of inferior status & obedient to those with high status, upholding traditional values, favoured own ethnic group
          • Categorises people into 'us' & 'them' - seeing own group as superior most likely developed from strict & critical upbringing as they could never be hostile towards parents, therefore displace hostility onto weaker targets
            • Adorno et al
              • Prejudice is as a result of individual's personality type - piloted & developed questionnaire - F scale
              • Authoritarian Personality
                • Hostile to those of inferior status & obedient to those with high status, upholding traditional values, favoured own ethnic group
                • Categorises people into 'us' & 'them' - seeing own group as superior most likely developed from strict & critical upbringing as they could never be hostile towards parents, therefore displace hostility onto weaker targets
        • Argues deep-seated personality traits predisposed some to be highly sensitive to totalitarian & antidemocratic = prone to being highly prejudicial
          • Totalitarian
            • Intolerant of those with differing opinion
          • Antidemocratic
            • Against the decisions of the majority
        • Social Dominance Orientation
          • See world as hierarchy & want own group to be on top - more likely to be prejudiced to groups lower down
        • Cohrs 2012
          • Right wing authoritarian +vely correlates with prejudice & -vely with openness
      • Cultural Factors
        • Trandis
          • Prejudice & discrimination more likely to be observed among collectivists than individualists
        • Individualism
          • Someone considered discrete, autonomous & respectful abide to lows, rules & regulations
        • Collectivism
          • Well-being & social harmony valued over individual interests - everyone is in a role or position in society - conflict with out groups expected
        • Guidmond
          • Countries promoting multi-culturalism or assimilation have lower levels of prejudice - e.g. Canada

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