Factors Affecting Eye Witness Testimony: Misleading Information

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  • Factors Affecting Eye Witness Testimony: Misleading Information
    • AO1
      • Leading Questions
        • Phrased in a way that suggests a certain response
        • Can decrease the accuracy of EWT
          • Response Bias
            • Wording of a question changes how individuals choose a response
          • Situation Bias
            • Leading questions causes actual changes in the individuals memory
      • Incorrect info given to eye witness usually after event
      • Post Event Discussion
        • Co-witnesses to a crime discuss the crime with each other
        • Testimonies contaminated
        • Can decrease accuracy of EWT
          • Combine information from other witnesses into their own memory
    • AO3
      • Leading questions can decrease accuracy of EWT: Loftus & Palmer
        • Ps watched clips of car accidents and asked leading questions
          • Different verbs used e.g. contacted, collided, smashed
          • Speed affected by verb ps used
            • Verb implied information about speed - affected ps memory
      • Post Event Discussion decreases accuracy of EWT: Gabbert
        • Each ps watched video of same crime but filmed from different points
          • Both ps discussed what they'd seen before completing recall test
        • 71% ps mistakenly recalled aspects of even that they didn't see
        • 0% of control group (no discussion) said the wrong thing
        • Witnesses go along with each other because they believe the other witness is right/wrong (phenomenon memory conformity)
      • Lack ecological validity
        • In real-life instances of crime, individuals aren't prepared/may not be paying attention
        • Anxiety they feel may decrease accuracy of EWT
        • In a lab, ps won't experience anxiety


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