# Atomic Structure

Mindmap for F321 1.1.1 Atomic Structure. Outlines the subatomic particles, isotopes and nuclides.

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• F321 1.1.1 Atomic Structure
• The Sub-Atomic Particles
• An atom must have the same number of electrons as protons. This makes all atoms neutral
• Nuclides
• The term used to describe any atom of which the atomic number and the mass number are specified
• Written as-
• Mass Number
• (nucleon number)
• The number of protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of the atom
• X
• Atomic Number
• (proton number)
• the number of protons present in the nucleus of the atom
• in atoms the proton number is always equal to the number of electrons
• Calculations
• Number of Electrons
• Positive ion (cation)
• Subtract charge from atomic number
• Negative ion (anion)
• Add charge to atomic number
• Number of Neutrons
• Subtract atomic number from mass number
• Isotopes
• Definitions
• Isotope
• Relative atomic mass (Ar)
• Average mass of the naturally occurring isotopes of the element relative to the mass of an atom of Carbon-12 which has a mass of 12
• Relative isotopic mass
• Average mass of a naturally occurring isotope of the element relative to the mass of an atom of Carbon-12 which has a mass of 12
• Calculating relative atomic mass from isotopic abundance
• Multiply abundance (%) by isotopic masses
• Found in NUCLEUS
• Neutrons
• 0 Charge (neutral)
• Relative Mass= 1
• The Sub-Atomic Particles
• An atom must have the same number of electrons as protons. This makes all atoms neutral
• Protons
• +1 Charge
• Relative mass= 1
• Every atom of the same element has the same proton number
• Nucleus is tiny and extremely dense compared to the volume of an atom
• Occupy a space somewhere OUTSIDE Nucleus
• Electrons
• -1 Charge
• Relative Mass= 1/2000
• Held in place my an electrostatic force from the nucleus