Transport In Animals

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  • Transport In Animals
    • Double and single circulatory systems
      • Closed circulatory system eg humans. Open circulatory system eg insects, haemocoel.
        • Insects have an arrangement of tubes called tracheae, which carry air directly to the tissues.
    • The cardiac cycle is the sequence of events that makes up a heart beat.
      • The atrial systole is when the heart is filled with blood. The pressure from this contraction is not great, because the atria walls are only thin.
        • The blood from the atria does not go back into the pulmonary veins or the vena cavae, as the semilunar valves prevent backflow.
        • The ventricular diastole is when the atria and ventricles relax. The semilunar valves in the aorta and pulmonary artery are pushed shut. Blood flows from the veins through the atria and into the ventricles.
    • The heart is made from cardiac muscle.
      • The Aorta is the largest artery, which branches upwards towards the head.
      • The Pulmonary Artery branches into two arteries after leaving the heart; one goes to the left lung and one to the right lung.
      • The Venae Cava runs on the right side of the heart; one end brings blood downwards from the head, and the other end upwards from the body.
        • The Pulmonary Veins bring blood back to the heart from the left or right lung.
          • The Coronary Arteries can be seen on the surface of the heart. They branch from the aorta and deliver oxegenated blood to the muscle of the walls of the heart.
          • The muscle that seperates the left ventricle and atrium from the right atrium and ventricle is called the septum.
            • Blood from the venae cava flows into the right atrium, and blood from the pulmonary artery flows intp the left atrium.


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