Eyjafjallajokull - The impacts & human responses as evidenced by a recent volcanic event

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  • Eyjafjallajokull - The impacts & human responses as evidenced by a recent volcanic event
    • Location & associated plate margin
      • Southern Iceland, Mid-Atlantic Ridge
      • Constructive boundary- Eurasian & North American plate
    • Nature & characteristics
      • Eruption at constructive boundaries are less explosive than destructive
      • Achieved VEI of 4
      • Volcano had melted an ice cap
      • Mix of water and lava made it more explosive
      • Large volumes of ash was deposited into the atmosphere
    • Primary impacts
      • Fluoride was deposited from the volcano on grazing land
      • Large amounts of ash deposited, so livestock was taken inside
      • Glaciers melted by the eruption
      • Local population evacuated for safety
      • Flights cancelled across europe
      • Airlines lost lost millions, through cancelled flights and compensation
    • Secondary impacts
      • Cost airlines £130million per day for the 6 days that the airspace was closed
      • Flooding due to ice melting - 1000 people to be evacuated
      • Flouride deposited on grazing land could cause internal haemorrhaging in cattle & sheep
      • Fresh fish exports, a major local industry, were badly affected with loss of income
      • The channel tunnel and the cross channel ferries did alot of extra business
      • Europe losses $2.6 billion of GDP due to eruption
      • 400,000 Britons standed worldwide
      • EIDQ an international telecommiunications company had to be cancelled
    • Responses
      • Long term
        • Infrared sensor which would be attached to all planes to allow them to detect and avoid volcanic ash clouds
        • Airline compannies had to provide compensation
        • Increase in tourism in Iceland because of the volcano
      • Short term
        • Livestock taken inside to escape ash
        • The local population was evacuated for safety and due to respiratory threats
        • A main road route had to be breached, because of risk to the bridge
        • All flights cancelled from some airports
        • People used Facebook and other social media to buddy up to share costs
        • Airlines had to provide accomandation
    • Application to the hazard management cycle
      • Mitigation
        • Evacuation, Iceland Metelogical service, monitoring
      • Preparation
        • Evacuation, preparing airspace, cancelling flights, bringing animals inside
      • Responses
        • Advanced warning systems e.g infrared systems
      • Recovery
        • Clearing ash field of ash, main road breached
    • Perceptions of the hazard from local people
      • Adaptation
        • Brought animals inside
        • Clear evacuation systems
        • Monitoring
        • Using geothermal energy

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