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  • Created by: gabbyb98
  • Created on: 12-03-15 14:24
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  • Eyewitness Testimony
    • Misleading information.
      • Loftus & Palmer 1974
        • Experiment 1, misleading information (hit vs smashed), led to inaccurate recall
      • Loftus & Palmer 1978
        • Experiment 2 (broken glass), misleading information changes information storage
      • Evaluation
        • Supporting evidence from Loftus et al. (1978), stop/yield sign
        • Challenged by Bekerian and Bowers (1973) - misleading information affects retrieval
        • Real-life robbery (Yuille and Cutshall, 1986) - accurate recall despite misleading information
      • Validity
        • Lab experiments may not be taken seriously Participants not emotionally involved Foster et al. (1994) - better identification with real-life set up
    • Factors That Influence Accuracy
      • Age
        • Children make more errors (Parker and Carranza, 1989)
        • Younger participants more confident but no age differences (Yarmey, 1993)
        • Older less accurate when delay was one week (Memon et al, 2003)
        • Evaluation
          • Own-age bias (Anastasi and Rhodes, 2006)
          • Individual Differences
            • Alcohol impairs attention (Clifasefi et al., 2006)
      • Anxiety
        • Deffenbacher et al. (2004) meta-analysis showed anxiety reduced accuracy of EWT
        • Christianson and Hubinetter (1993) anxiety increased accuracy in real-life bank robberies
        • Weapon focus effect - Johnson and Scott (1976) - if a weapon is used participants are more likely to focus on that rather than the person holding it
        • Evalualtion
          • Meta-analysis (Stebly, 1992) supports weapon-focus effect
          • Loftus et al. (1987) tracked eye movements to support weapon-focus effec

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