eyewitness testimony

inlcudes details on Age, Anxiety, Misleading information

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  • Eyewitness  Testimony
    • Age
      • own age bias
        • Anastasi and Rhodes
      • valentine and coxen 1997
        • method
          • pp's watched video of kidnapping
          • 3 independent groups
            • children
              • more incorrect answers to non-leading questions
                • elderly
              • misled more easily with leading questions
            • young adults
            • elderly
        • conclusion
          • age has an effect on EWT
        • evaluation
          • real life application
            • changes to how elderly and children questioned
          • low ecological validity
          • could be considered an experiment on how well people remember what they have seen on TV
            • less emotional arousal
            • extraneous variable
    • Anxiety
      • Yerkes-Dobson Law
        • as anxiety increase...
          • ...so does peformance
            • ...only till an optimum point...
              • thereafter, as anxiety increases...
                • performance decreases.
            • positive correalation
              • as anxiety increase...
                • ...so does peformance
                  • ...only till an optimum point...
                    • thereafter, as anxiety increases...
                      • performance decreases.
                  • positive correalation
        • loftus (1979
          • weapons focus
            • method
              • PP's heard a discussion in a nearby room
                • one condition
                  • a man came out with a pen and grease on his hands
                    • participants asked to identify the man out of 50 photos
                • second condition
                  • the man came out with a knife and his hands covered in blood
                    • participants asked to identify the man out of 50 photos
            • results
              • condition 1
                • 49% correct
              • condition 2
                • 33% correct
            • conclusion
              • when anxious or emotionally aroused
                • witnesses focus on a weapon at the expense of other details
            • evaluation
              • high ecological validity
                • the participants were not aware the event was staged
              • ethical issues
                • the participants were not aware the event was staged
                • psychological harm
                • deception
      • misleading information
        • leading questions
        • post-event information
          • loftus and palmer
            • broken glass
              • did you see THE/ANY broken glass?
                • the=more yeses
                • any=more nose

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