Eyewitness testimony

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  • Created by: P.Bradley
  • Created on: 11-04-15 08:45
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  • Eyewitness testimony
    • Anxiety
      • Loftus pen study
        • Procedure.
          • Participants took part in one of two conditions (Independent group design)
          • Condition 1: overheared a conversation about a machine breaking, then spotted a man holding a pen with oil on it.
          • Condition 2: overheard a heated argument and spotted a man holding a paper knife.
          • All particpants had  to identify the person they saw from a photo line up.
        • Findings.
          • condition 1: more than 50% of participants identified the person correctly
          • condition 2: less than 30% of participants accurately identified the person correctly.
          • This shows that anxiety plays a role in the accuracy of eyewitness testimony.
        • Evaluation
          • High experimental validaty- because the procedure was highly controlled.
          • ethical issues: participants were deceived about the true nature, participants in conditin 2 may have also had low levels of anxiety.
          • Low ecological validaty: the procedure was artificial, so can not be applied to real life situation.
          • Supported by: Clifford and Scott (1978): who found that people who watched a violent film recalled less off the 40 items correctly than those in the controlled group.
    • Age
      • Children
        • Suggestibilty
          • Ceci et al
            • Findings
              • Children of the age of 3,4 were more susceptible to having their memories altered by leading questions.
              • Mermories of children between 3 and 5 are weaker and fade faster than those of older children and that make is more uncertain about details of the event.
          • Warren et al:
            • Procedure:
              • Gave children and adults a story to read and asked them 20 questions, 15 were misleading.
            • Findings
              • They found that children were more likely to be influenced by leading questions.
              • in a second experiment they were told that the questions were hard an theyll make mistakes: both groups gave less correct answers.
        • Memory Processes
          • Goodman and Reed
            • Procedure:
              • children of the age of 3 and 6 years old took part in a variation of the game simon says, with an unfamilure male. They were aske questions five days later.
            • Findings
              • Found that the two age groups had the same level of accuracy.
              • however it did seem that the 3 year olds were less detailed and the two age groups had different types of mistakes.
          • Saywitz
            • ( Used to support Goodman and Reed)
              • Goodman and Reed
                • Procedure:
                  • children of the age of 3 and 6 years old took part in a variation of the game simon says, with an unfamilure male. They were aske questions five days later.
                • Findings
                  • Found that the two age groups had the same level of accuracy.
                  • however it did seem that the 3 year olds were less detailed and the two age groups had different types of mistakes.
            • Procedure:
              • Asked children to listen a discribe what they heard in the auditotape.
            • Findings:
              • The recall of the 8 years old was less detailed but as accurate as older children. (11 and 15)
              • The 8 years were more inclined to exaggerate and contradict.
      • Elderly
        • Cohen and Falkner
          • Procedure:
            • Participants either aged 35 or 70
            • They were shown a silent clip show of a kidnapping
            • 10 minutes later participants were given on of two versions of: one accurate and with false details
            • Later on they were asked to recall the slidshow
          • Findings:
            • It was found that the elderly participants were more likely to be influenced by the incorrect information in their recall of the slide show.
        • Coxon and Valentine:
          • Used participants of the ages of (7 to 9), (60 to 85) and (16 to 18)
          • Findings:
            • Immature development in children, meaning they were more likely to be influnced by misleading questions.
            • Advancing age in elderly made them more prone to being influenced by misleading information.
    • Misleading information
      • Loftus and Palmer
        • Procedure.
          • Participant watched a slide show of a car accident.
          • When asked how fast the car was going the word hit was replaced with: Contacted, Colided, Bumped, Smashed.
          • 45 American students, oppurtunity sample, (Independent group design)
        • Findings.
          • The verb used in the question effected the speed of the car.
          • Contacted: 32 MPH
          • Smashed: 41 MPH
        • Evaluation.
          • Low ecological validaty: doesnt represent real life application.
          • Ethnocentric: only used American students so cant apply the results to the general population.
          • High experimetal validaty: lab settings meaning it can be reciplicated.

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