eye witness testimony mind mand

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  • Created by: Danie1996
  • Created on: 10-04-14 20:58
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  • Eye witness testimony
    • The effects of misleading information
      • Recall is influenced by the way questions are worded and by additional information fed to them after an event.
        • Loftus & Palmer (1974) found that participants who were asked the 'smashed' question produced by far the highest estimate of speed, while those hearing contacted gave the lowest estimate of speed. A week later, participants in the 'smashed' condition were more likely to report seeing broken glass at the accident even though there was none.
          • 17% of the misled group reported a barn compared with 3% of the others.
          • Critics suggested that participants may have responded to Demand characteristics and a lack of ecological validity in that watching a video of an event before, is an artificial situation that does not mimic real-life situations.
    • The Effect of anxiety on EWT
      • In real life anxiety seems to enhance recall. Sympathetic arousal in stressful situations can enhance recall but only up to a point.
        • There seems to be an optimal level after, where the recall declines.
        • People may respond differently in lab experiments - not take it so seriously etc. watching videos is not the same as witnessing real life robberies, crashes.
        • Loftus (1979) Asked participants to sit outside a lab and made the participants feel like they were in real situations. There were three conditions.
          • Condition 1 - Overheard a friendly discussion then one saw a man come out of the room holding a pen with greasy hands.
          • Condition 2- overheard a hostile discussion and furniture being overturned and saw a man come out of the room holding a blood stained knife. Both sets of participants were asked to identify the man from 50 photos.
          • He found participants who had more violent scenes were less accurate, he concluded this was because of the heightened anxiety caused by the violence.
          • Evaluation- this was a staged experiment, but it was similar to real life as the participants thought they were waiting to take part in a completely different experiment.
    • The Effect of age on EWT
      • There are contradicting findings. It is NOT true that older people can't recall as well as younger people or memory declines with age.
      • Anasti and Rhodes (2006) used participants 18-78yrs and found evidence for own age bias. Participants of different age groups showed better recall of their own age group, when looking at photos of faces.
        • Gordon et al. (2000) reviewed a number of studies of child witnesses and found that young children and more susceptible to misleading information and leading questions even though their recall was good.
          • Davies (1994) has disrupted this and says that children can resist misleading information if they are questioned very sensitevely.
      • Warren et al. (2005) found older children were more likely to be influenced by leading questions than adults.
    • Method-ological issues with the studies


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