sociology external factors

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  • EXTERNAL FACTORS IN CLASS DIFFERENCES IN ACHIEVEMENT
    • CULTURAL DEPRIVATION
      • lacking basic skills, knowledge and attitudes
        • BERNSTEIN restricted (WC) and elaborative (MC) speech codes
        • SUGARMAN attitudes and values - WC parents dont value education
          • SUGARMAN WC has a particular culture that prevents them from doing well in education: collectivism, present time orientation, fatalism and immediate gratification
            • dont have resources or do activities which stimulate a childs intellectual development - Bernstein & Young found toys effect intellectual development - MC mums more likely to choose educational toys
      • DOUGLAS the role of parents in early years is crucial as during primary socialisation MC children get greater attention from their parents
      • EVALUATION OF CULTURAL DEPRIVATION
        • tend to assume that being WC may be inferior
        • not all working class children underachieve therefore it doesn't fully explain  why some do succed despite being culturally deprived
    • MATERIAL DEPRIVATION
      • Lacking of material necessities to succeed
        • HOWARD  poor diet means lacking nutrition which causes lower engery and illness = more time off school
        • housing and overcrowding can effect education as not any room to work at home. GOVE said all children should have space to work
        • FLAHERTY cant afford stationary and things required for school- no financial support
          • TANNER found that there is a heavy burden on poor families caused by the cost of equipment, stationary and uniform
          • may have to deal with hand me downs which can lead to bullying
      • may have to work part time or leave education at 16 in order to help support the family
    • CULTURAL CAPITAL
      • the knowledge, attitudes, values, language of the middle class
        • BOURDIEU argues that MC students possess cultural capital which gives them an advantage over the WC.
        • the possession of appropriate tastes, attitudes and values which lead to material reward in later life
        • GERWITZ MC parents use their economic and cultural capital to get educational capital - they know how schools work and can therefore help their children

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