extension of frontiers in the north

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  • extension of frontiers in the north.
    • north frontiers of most concern- this was where Germanic and other barbarians threatened Gaul and Italy.
    • alpine districts and the Danube.
      • Augustus wanted to establish a strong, natural frontier between the alps and the black sea- he relied on members of his family( Agrippa, Drusus and Tiberius) to achieve this.
      • Raetiia and Noricum
        • 16-15 BC Tiberius and Drusus- campaign to conquer territory north of alps as far as Danube. this area was organised into 2 districts.
      • alpine province added
        • 14BC Maritime and Alpine districts between Gaul and Italian peninsula conquered and incorporated into small province called Alpes Maritimae- governed by equestrian prefect.
      • control of middle and lower Danube Valley
        • provinces of Illyricum and Macedonia frequently attacked by tribes in middle of lower danube valley- Augustus needed control of this.
          • Pannonianssubdued between 13 and 9 BC first by Agrippa and then Tiberius.
            • Moesia- further east was defeated in 29BC and added to macedoina but in AD6 was organised as province.
              • Thracian uprising was suppressedbetween 11 and 9 BC- but thrace was left under control of native rulers.
      • later uprisings
        • Rome-s norther frontier followsd the Danube River- AD6 serious uprising occurred among the pannoniansand Dalmatians south of the Danube. It took Tiberius 3 years to restore order in Illyricum.
    • the Rhine and the Elbe
      • Rhine frontier in the north west- established by Caesar- most dangerous of empires boundaries.
        • parts of Gaul still restless- in 29BC, 17-16BC and 12BC- the germanic tribes beyond the Rhine had made several raids into the Roman province of Gaul.
          • augustus hoped to campaign against the germans and push the Roman frontier as far as the Elbe. An elbe-danube frontier would be shorter and therefore would require fewer troops.
      • between 12 and 9BC Drusus subdued various Germanictribes- reached the Elbe but was killed.
        • Tiberius continued this work- he also tried to conquer area between elbe and danube but was cut short in AD6- Tiberius forced to deal with revolts in Illyricum.
          • AD9- germantribes between Rhine and Elbe  subdued given to Varus- his lack of tact and strict approach led to attack on Romans.
            • 20,000 men of 17th, 18th and 19th legions wiped out in the Teutoberg forest. Varus committed suicide,
              • tiberius was sent to deal with revolt. after several successful campaigns beyond the Rhine he withdrew to original roman frontier and secured Rhine fortifications.
                • lost German territory never regained. after AD9 Augustus' frontier policy became more defensive.

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