Unit 4 - Schizophrenia

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  • Created by: dansapen_
  • Created on: 21-10-14 22:09
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  • Explanations of Schizophrenia
    • Biological explanations
      • Genetic factors
        • Family Studies
          • Gottesman: Research found that individuals are more likely to have schizophrenia if a family member is diagnosed.
            • The more closely related the greater the risk.
              • 2 parents: 46%. 1 parent: 13%. Sibling: 9%
        • Adoption studies
          • An effective way of separating out the effects of genetic factors from environmental.
            • 164 adopted children whose mothers had sz. 6.7% also had sz. compared to 2% of the 197 adoptees (CG)
              • The genetic liability to sz. had been decisively confirmed.
        • Twin studies - Joseph.
          • Calculated data from twin studies prior to 2001. They showed a c.r of 40.4% for Mz and 7.4% for Dz. Recent blind studies report a lower C.r for Mz twins.
            • Twin researchers argue that the validity of their research still stands, because it shows that mz twins have a higher C.R than Dz twins.
      • Biochemical
        • Comer, 2003 - dopamine plays a key role in guiding attention, perception and thoughts
        • Dopamine hypothesis: that messages from neurons containing dopamine fire too often or too easily. They have a high no.of D2 receptors
        • Amphetamines - cause synapses transmitting dopamine to be flooded. Large doses cause sz. symptoms
        • Antipsychotic drugs are known as "dopamine antagonists"
        • Grilly, 2002 - Parkinson's disease patients who took the drug L-dopa suffered sz. symptoms
      • Brain structure
        • PET, MRI and Cat scans have shown that many schizophrenics have enlarged ventricles.
        • The ventricles of a person w/sz. are on average 15% bigger than normal (Torrey, 202)
    • Psychological explanations
      • Expressed Emotion
        • =communication within a family has lots of hostility, criticism & emotional over-involvement
          • not the CAUSE but the COURSE
          • Linzen: 4x more likely to relapse with a high EE family
          • Vaughn & Leff (1976) - found a relapse rate of 51% w/high EE. 13% w/low EE. Relapse rates go up to 97% - no medication.
      • Double bind
      • Cognitive
        • Frith: attempted to explain the onset and maintainence of +ve symptpms. Called: faulty filter model.
          • Sz. people are unable to distinguish between actions that are brought about by external forces and those internally generated.
            • filter between conscious and preconscious breaks down
        • Helmsley's: based on the failure of schemas. sz. people become overloaded with sensory information.
          • these abnormalities are caused by the hippo campus.


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