explanations of schizophrenia

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  • Created by: Jupiter
  • Created on: 04-11-14 12:38
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  • Explanations of Schiz.
    • Biological
      • Genetic
        • Cardano et al (2002) MZ twins 48% likely to develop schiz then DZ 17%
        • problems:
          • sample size
          • many schiz dont have a family history of the disirder
          • MZ twin sare not always concordant
        • Tienari (1991) schiz is found in adopted children when their biological mothers have schiz
      • biochemical
        • DOPAMINE
        • Dopamine affecting drugs such as L-dopa
        • PET scans and post mortems show high D2 receptors in schizaphrenics
        • Problems
          • drugs don't affect everyone in the same way
          • drug therapy may have caused the PET results
          • Do high D2 cause schiz or does schiz cause high D2?
      • neuroanatomy
        • Enlarged ventricles
        • Torrey (2002) ventricle 15% larger in a schiz
        • patients with larger ventricles display more cognitive disturbances and poor response to anti-psychotic drugs
        • problems
          • not found in all schiz
          • problems with cause and effect
          • contradictions in research
          • don't know if born with big ventricles or developed
    • Psychosocial
      • Double Bind
        • Bateson '56
        • contradictory messsages
        • repetition causes self-deception and false sense of reality/ inability to communicate
        • lots of schiz found in dysfunctional families
        • X only studied after diagnosis - Retrospective
          • rarely involved proper control groups
      • EE
        • Brown 1972
        • Hostility. Criticism. Over-concern. more likely to cause relapse
        • assessed by taping an interview between the patient and family
          • frequency of critical comments. like/dislike toward patient. over-involvement
        • X Correlational / not a defining characteristic of schiz / only one interview
      • Behavioural
        • role modeling
          • all behaviour is learned -  Bandura 1965
        • child shown little reinforcement will pick up unusual behaviours or quirks
          • observers react in an avoidant or negative way. Sometimes even erratically.
          • The behaviour is reinforced and will deteriorate into a psychotic state.
      • cognitive
        • The knowledge that we have is faulty or skewed
        • Accounts for hallucinations, delusions and paranoia
        • perhaps the filtering and/or processing filter is defective
        • self fulfilling prophesy (social labelling)


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