Explanations of Attachment

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  • Created by: gabbyb98
  • Created on: 15-03-15 13:00
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  • Explanations of Attachment
    • Learning Theory - Learning through association.
      • Classical Conditioning
        • Food (UCS) naturally produces a sense of pleasure (UCR) - reduces discomfort.The person who feeds the infant (CS) becomes associated with the food.
          • The feeder is eventually produces the pleasure associated with the food; pleasure now becomes a conditioned response (CR).The association between the individual and sense of pleasure is the attachment bond.
      • Operant Conditioning
        • Dollard and Miller (1950) Offered an explanation for attachment based on operant conditioning.Suggested that a hungry infant feels discomfort and this creates a drive to reduce it.
          • When the infant is fed, the drive is reduced and feelings of pleasure are produced.Food becomes the primary reinforcer because it reinforces the behaviour in order to avoid the discomfort.
            • The person who supplies the food is associated with avoiding the discomfort and becomes the secondary reinforcer.Attachment occurs because the child seeks the person who can supply the reward.
      • Evaluation
        • Strengths
          • We do learn through reinforcement and punishment however food may not be the main reinforcer - it may be that attention and responsiveness from the caregiver are more important rewards that create the attachment.
        • Limitations
          • Validity: learning theory is based largely on studies with non-human animals therefore results aren't generalisable. (Harlow & Harlow)
          • Human behaviour is more influenced by higher order thinking and emotions.
          • Schaffer and Emerson  Found infants have stronger attachments with those who comfort and communicate with them rather than those who fed them
    • Bowlby's attachment theory (1969) Adaptive and innate
      • Attachment is adaptive and innate
        • Critical and sensitive period  between newly born and  5 years
          • Secure Base from which to explore
            • Caregiving is Innate
              • Monotropy  (forming a primary attachment )
                • Internal Working Model  & Continuity Hypothesis
                  • Bowlby's attachment theory (1969) Adaptive and innate
                    • Attachment is adaptive and innate
                      • Critical and sensitive period  between newly born and  5 years
                        • Secure Base from which to explore
                          • Caregiving is Innate
                            • Monotropy  (forming a primary attachment )
                              • Internal Working Model  & Continuity Hypothesis
                                • Internal Working Model develops as a template to base future social relations
                                • the view that there is a link between early attachment relationship and later emotional behaviour.
                                  • Sroufe et al showed the differences in social etiquette of those with secure attachments and insure attachments
                              • Schaffer and Emerson
                            • Helped by social releases
                        • Hodges and Tizard found that children who had formed no attachment  during this period had trouble later in life
                    • Evaluation
                      • Strengths
                        • Lorenz (1952) supports the view that imprinting is innate because the goslings imprinted on the first moving object they saw
                        • attachment and caregiving should be universal. Tronick et al. (1992) studied an African tribe who live in extended family groups.
                          • Infants at six months still showed one primary attachment despite the childbearing practices.
                        • Evidence for monotropy: Schaffer and Emerson (1964)
                      • Limitations
                        • Multiple attachment figures: psychologists hold the view that all attachment figures are equally important. titled
                  • Internal Working Model develops as a template to base future social relations
                  • the view that there is a link between early attachment relationship and later emotional behaviour.
                    • Sroufe et al showed the differences in social etiquette of those with secure attachments and insure attachments
                • Schaffer and Emerson
              • Helped by social releases
          • Hodges and Tizard found that children who had formed no attachment  during this period had trouble later in life
      • Evaluation
        • Strengths
          • Lorenz (1952) supports the view that imprinting is innate because the goslings imprinted on the first moving object they saw
          • attachment and caregiving should be universal. Tronick et al. (1992) studied an African tribe who live in extended family groups.
            • Infants at six months still showed one primary attachment despite the childbearing practices.
          • Evidence for monotropy: Schaffer and Emerson (1964)
        • Limitations
          • Multiple attachment figures: psychologists hold the view that all attachment figures are equally important. titled

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