Explanations of attachment

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Explanations of attachment
    • Learning theory
      • Based on food and Classical (pair association) and operant (learning through circumstances)  conditioning
      • Operant conditioning: Babies cries = painful for both. Mother cuddles (negative          reinforcement for parent)
        • Positive reinforcement for child, will cry to be cuddled.
          • Perfect cycle and mother will carry on cuddling to stop crying
      • Harlows monkeys
        • Shaffer and Emerson (1964): 3% with fathers and 27% joint therefore not just food
        • Attachment emotionally intense.       Developed on regular meetings
        • Fails to provide explanation as attachment      isn't just based on food
    • Social learning theory
      • Bandura (1977)
        • 1) observation       2) imitation      3) role models
          • recognises the importance of parental roles
            • Doesn't  explain why attachment is so intense
        • Role modelling: parents show affectionate behaviours and child imitates
        • Direct instruction: teach how to reciprocate      affection "give mummy a kiss"
        • Social facilitation: watch and help children carry out attachment behaviours e.g play
    • Evolutionary explanation (Bolwby)
      • Evaluation
        • Black and Shutte (2006) +ve rel with mother = trusting conforting rel with partner. +ve rel with father = reliant on partner
        • Zimmerman (2000) Continuity continues when serious life events don't occur
        • Hazan and shaver (1987) Secure type = lasting love. Type A = rarly found true love
        • Main and Goldwyn (1984) - Earned security. develop feelings of trust
    • Shaffer and Emerson (1964)
      • Naturalistic observation. Visited monthly. Up to 1 year and again at 18months
      • Triangulation:  1) observed attachment behaviours   2) asked mothers about babies response.Rate on 4 point scale.
      • FINDINGS: In keeping with stage theory
        • 65% mother as first attachment.  3% father first attachment. 27% as joint attachment
        • Percentages may have changed over time due to men having a greater role in up bringing
  • Classical conditioning: Milk = unconditioned stimulus. Relief and pleasure = unconditioned response
    • Mother was neutral response becomes a conditioned response
      • Mother comes to produce the same feelings, this is how attachment is formed.


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Attachment resources »