Disorders - anxiety

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  • Created by: meow
  • Created on: 05-03-14 18:13
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  • Explanations of an anxiety disorder - phobia
    • Behavioural - Watson & Raynor: classical conditioning
      • To see if it's possible to induce a fear
      • Case study on 'Little Albert' in controlled lab conditions
      • reacted violently to steel bar hit by hammer
        • used to condition Albert to fear rats
      • Single-subject design
        • behaviours measured: his reactions to stimulus before&after conditioning
      • Findings
        • Appeared to show fear when presented with rats, cotton wool, rabbit, etc.
          • Cried and crawled away
    • Biological - Ohman et al: types of phobia and biological predisposition
      • To see if phobias of snakes could be more easily conditioned than phobias of faces/houses
      • Lab experiment - pp's linked to a machine
        • presented pictures and deliver shocks to some of them
        • fear reaction measured by skin conductance
      • participants
        • 64 paid volunteers aged 20 - 30
        • 38 females and 26 males
        • psychology students University of Uppasala, Sweden
      • Independent measures design with 3 conditions
        • Electric shocks given after seeing snakes, houses or faces
      • Results
        • pp's more likely to show fear reactions to snakes that houses/faces
          • suggests biological preparedness to develop phobias to objects that may cause danger
    • Cognitive - DiNardo: gerneralised anxiety disorder
      • To assess whether 'excessive worry' is a symptom of GAD
      • Quasi experiment covering patients attending 1 of 3 clinics in USA
      • Independent measiures design
        • participants with and without diagnosis of GAD
      • Patients interviewed twice to assess reliability using structured interviews
        • Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule
        • Strucutred Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-R.
        • 5-point ratng scale for symptoms such as sweating, excessive worry.
      • Findings
        • more patients with GAD reported excessive worry than non-patients
        • GAD patients - excessive worry59.1% of day compared to 41.7% of non-GAD patients
      • Conclusion
        • Excessive worry (faulty thinking) found more in GAD patients


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