explanations for persuasiveness of tv advertising

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  • Created by: hmarks62
  • Created on: 10-02-15 12:51
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  • Explanations for persuasiveness of TV advertising
    • Cultivation Theory
      • Built on two assumptions:TV promotes a systematically distorted view of reality, particularly regarding violence, and long term viewing will lead to distortions in the viewer
      • Shrum (2001) Factors involved in cultivation effect: Long term heavy viewers find it easier to think of examples of violent incidents 'off the cuff'. they may be able to amend their  exaggeration if asked to think about the source of their info
      • Descriptive - doesn't say how  or why  TV distorts attitudes
      • Shrum (2001) supporting evidence to show heavy watchers have distorted attitudes only when they don't monitor the source. Found the attitudes were no more distorted than light hearted watchers when told to justify their answers
    • Agenda Setting/Priming
      • Agenda setting: TV influence what  we think about and puts certain things into our agenda
      • Priming: TV influences why we arrive at certain judgements i.e. we're "primed" to think certain things
      • Processes are not explained in detail - how different are they? is it conscious or unconscious?
      • TV influences judgements by focussing attention on certain issues. Korsnick & Kinder (1990): Reagans job performance  assessments were more influenced by foreign policy during Iran-contra
      • McCombs & Shaw (1972): 1968 election had close correspondence  between amount of TV attention issues had and the importance the public attached to the issue
        • Cause and effect issue - Increased importance to the public might have led to increased media coverage
          • Addressed by Iyengar & Kinder (1987): P's watched newscasts over a week, ranking issues in order of importance at the start and end. Issues emphasised in newscasts ranked more important at the end
    • Children and advertising
      • Martin (1997) Met analysis: Strong positive correlation between age and understanding of persuasive intent. Older children could  discriminate better between commercials and regular programmes and trusted commercials less.
      • Advertising to younger children increases the degree they "pester" parents for the products
      • Pine & Nash (2001): Studied childrens gift requests in letters to santa in US and Sweden, where advertising to under 12's is banned. Found significantly fewer gift requests in swedish kids.
    • Hard vs Soft sell
      • People who score low on self monitoring prefer hard sell, those who are more image conscious are more concerned  with the image the product creates
      • Hard links to central route - factual info about the product. Soft links to peripheral route, and uses more mood/context like celeb endorsements
      • Hard sell is more irritating because of its direct and provocative nature, decreasing their persuasive ability
    • Product endorsement
      • Celebs are a familiar face that we see as reliable and trustworthy, which makes us trust the product.
      • We form parasocial  relationships with celebrities & their opinions rubber stamp the advertisers claims
      • Martin et al (2008): students were more convinced by an endorsement from a fellow student than a celeb for a digital camera - they want to know its fashionable among people who resemble them
      • Erfgen (2011): Can be in different ways. Explicitly "I endorse this", implicitly "I use this" or co-present where they are shown together. Research does not consider this, or which is most effective
    • Congruence
      • Adverts and their products may be better remembered if it is congruent with the programme being shown, so the viewer will more likely be interested
    • Sex & Violence
      • Advertisers believe 18-34 yr olds are best to target as they have the most disposable income. They don't watch as much Tv as others, so products are embedded into programmes with high sex/violence content as this is the preferred  programmes  for the age
      • Bushman (2007): Randomly assigned P's a violent, sexual or neutral  programme with 9 adverts in between, 3 of each type. P's asked to recall adverts after the programme, and were less likely to remember advertised  brands when embedded in a violent or sexual programme, with violent the least memorable
        • Therefore to increase persuasion adverts should not be placed in these programmes as they are least memorable
    • Giles (2003): Cinema advertising is succussful as there is a captive audience. Comstock & Scharrer (1999): 80% TV viewers likely to leave the room during adverts. If adverts are viewed less, there is less impact


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