Explanations for Independent Behaviour

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  • Explanations for Independent Behaviour
    • Locus of control
      • External
        • Place the responsibility of what happens on something other than themselves
      • Internal
        • Take responsibility for what happens
        • More likely to behave independently and bring about change in society
      • Measured using questionnaire
      • Oliner + Oliner
        • Interviewed 2 groups of non-jewish people who'd lived in Nazi occupied cities
        • One's who had helped Jews had internal locus of control
    • Asch - Line experiment variations (conformity)
      • Unamity of majority
        • When someone else acts independent, it's easier to do so too
        • When confederate gave right answer, Pps were more likely to be independent
      • Size of Majority
        • Easier to be independent when the majority is small
        • When there was only one confederate, conformity nearly 0
      • Nature of Task
        • If the task is difficult, dont know answer, more likely to conform
    • Milgram's Study Variations (Obedience)
      • Disobedient role models
        • Someone else disobeys, give courage to disobey too
        • When Pps could see a confederate disobey, obedience dropped
      • Questionning motives and authority
        • When experiment in downtown office instead of Yale Uni, obedience dropped
      • Feeling responsible or empathetic
        • Buffers removed, easier to disobey
        • If they had to see or touch learner obedience dropped to 40% 30%
    • Evaluation
      • Supporting evidence for locus of control
        • Oliner and Oliner - people with internal helped jews more than those with external
      • Issues with measuring locus of control
        • Uses a questionnaire which can give false jusgement or social desirablity effects
      • Ecological Validity
        • Milgram's experiment was very artificial - low ecological validity
        • Disobedient role models real - Rose Parks on bus
        • Asch's line study is not a realistic way of measuring conformity

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