Explanations for anomalous experience

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  • Explanations for Anomalous Experience
    • Illusion of control
      • Two events that happen at the same time. So some people may believe there is a causal relationship between them.
      • Has adaptive significance. Allows people to under and control their environment.
        • Type 1 error- believe the null hypothesis isn't true when it is in fact true.
        • Type 2 error- believe the null hypothesis is true when it isn't.
    • General Cognitive Ability
      • Blackmore & Troscianko- believers wrongly attribute coincidence to paranormal causes.
        • Intelligence may be lower in believers= less able to accurately judge.
      • Gray- believers have lower levels of academic performance
      • Irwin- did not find a difference in reasoning task
      • Jones et al- positive correlation between intelligence & belief.
    • Illusion of connection
      • Brugger et al- high levels of dopamine=find significant correlation and make connection that aren't real.
        • Shown real & scrambled faces & real and made up words.
          • Sheep more likely to see face when there weren't any.
            • All Ps given a does of L-dopa
              • Goats started to behave like sheep- no effect on sheep.
        • Adaptive advantage- good to see something potentially dangerous
        • Findings not found in replicated studies
    • Watts
      • Hidden Cause
      • Multiple End Points
      • Law of Truly Large Numbers
    • Probability Judgement
      • Reasoning associated with coincidence and self deception may be a form of probability judgement
      • The likelihood of an event occurring
      • Birthday Paradox

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