forgetting

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  • explanations for forgetting (LTM)
    • interference when trying to recall mem from LTM that is available but not accessible
      • proactive = forward so old learning prevents recall of recent info
      • retroactive = backward so new learning prevents recall of previous info
      • more likely to occur where memories are similar
      • theory tells us little about cognitive processes involved; majority of research in lab settings so low ecological validity/ not gen; semantic mem more resistant to interference than other types not explained
      • Baddeley & Hitch rugby players recall of team names played after missed games (affected more by no of teams not time)
      • McGeoch & McDonald - 2 lists of 10 words to learn (6 different 2nd lists); first list recall worst when 2nd list similar word meaning; similarity - effects recall of words in retroactive interference
    • retrieval failure
      • encoding specificity principle (Tulving) - same cues present at encoding must be present at retrieval for full remembering
      • Baddeley & Godden deep sea divers supports context dependent: memorising words in 2 conditions so 4 groups; best recall when context matched
      • Carter & Cassaday drugs causing different states of remembering (so 4 groups); internal states impacted recall
      • due to absense of cues which would trigger memory recall as cues are formed when memory is
        • context-dependent cues - external/ environment
        • state-dependent - physical/ psychological state

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