Explanations of Smoking

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  • Created by: mollyb
  • Created on: 14-06-13 18:52
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  • Explanation for Smoking
    • Maintenance: Biological Model
      • Explains maintenance through changes in the reward pathways. the changes occur through the action of nicotine which causes the release of dopamine.
      • over time the MDP becomes desentised to the level of dopamine and tolerance levels increase. when a smoker abstains from smoking their dopamine levels drop below levels needed to feel normal therefore increasing the drive to smoke.
      • DiFranza
        • supports this as found teenagers who had strong cravings for cigarettes after just 2 days of smoking were  more likely to become addicts.
          • showing it is highly addictive and those who craved early were 200x more likely to be LT addicts.
      • Pergadia et al
        • found that children inherit genes that influence the feeling of withdrawal from parents. some children can quit smoking and feel no withdrawal as well as parents whereas others do.
      • Maintence Operant Conditioning
        • Goldberg et al
          • found that rats in a skinner box pressed a level just as much for nicotine as they did for Cocaine. indicates smoking is highly addictive and rewarding
          • we maintain addiction because of the rewarding effects of nicotine releasing dopamine. nicotine is removed quickly form the body so effects are short. therefore the addict has to take more of the nicotine to get the same effect.
        • there is evidence that there are genes that are involved with addiction to smoking and some people are more at risk due to a genetic predisposition
        • Maintenance: Cognitive Model
          • appears to be an impact of irrational thoughts and beliefs. some smokers believe that smoking improves their concentration where other smokers become anxious when they can't have a cigarette. this means that they continually give into their cravings and find it virtually impossible to quit.
          • Explanation for Smoking
            • Maintenance: Biological Model
              • Explains maintenance through changes in the reward pathways. the changes occur through the action of nicotine which causes the release of dopamine.
              • over time the MDP becomes desentised to the level of dopamine and tolerance levels increase. when a smoker abstains from smoking their dopamine levels drop below levels needed to feel normal therefore increasing the drive to smoke.
              • DiFranza
                • supports this as found teenagers who had strong cravings for cigarettes after just 2 days of smoking were  more likely to become addicts.
                  • showing it is highly addictive and those who craved early were 200x more likely to be LT addicts.
              • Pergadia et al
                • found that children inherit genes that influence the feeling of withdrawal from parents. some children can quit smoking and feel no withdrawal as well as parents whereas others do.
              • Maintence Operant Conditioning
                • Goldberg et al
                  • found that rats in a skinner box pressed a level just as much for nicotine as they did for Cocaine. indicates smoking is highly addictive and rewarding
                  • we maintain addiction because of the rewarding effects of nicotine releasing dopamine. nicotine is removed quickly form the body so effects are short. therefore the addict has to take more of the nicotine to get the same effect.
                • there is evidence that there are genes that are involved with addiction to smoking and some people are more at risk due to a genetic predisposition
                • Maintenance: Cognitive Model
                  • appears to be an impact of irrational thoughts and beliefs. some smokers believe that smoking improves their concentration where other smokers become anxious when they can't have a cigarette. this means that they continually give into their cravings and find it virtually impossible to quit.
            • Relapse
              • explained through individuals suffering from withdrawal symptoms due to an altered reward system
              • person is also likely to relapse if they experience an increased level of stress, due to the desire to feel less anxious. the belief that smoking will make them less anxious can have an effect
              • Ogden
                • stated that you cannot separate the biological explanation from the SLT explanation, as both use components of the other to explain how addiction to smoking takes place.
              • Shiffman
                • found that most smokers are occasional smokers and only smoke in certain situations and have little desire to quit.
              • research into smokers made big unfair statements  about all smokers when only heavy smokers have been extensively studied
              • both biological and psychological therapies have been proven to work therefore these explanations must be correct
    • Relapse
      • explained through individuals suffering from withdrawal symptoms due to an altered reward system
      • person is also likely to relapse if they experience an increased level of stress, due to the desire to feel less anxious. the belief that smoking will make them less anxious can have an effect
      • Ogden
        • stated that you cannot separate the biological explanation from the SLT explanation, as both use components of the other to explain how addiction to smoking takes place.
      • Shiffman
        • found that most smokers are occasional smokers and only smoke in certain situations and have little desire to quit.
      • research into smokers made big unfair statements  about all smokers when only heavy smokers have been extensively studied
      • both biological and psychological therapies have been proven to work therefore these explanations must be correct

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