Explain Why Republicans Won All the Presidential Elections between 1896 and 1908 (McKinley and T. Roosevelt)? (12 marks)

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  • Explain Why Republicans Won All the Presidential Elections between 1896 and 1908 (McKinley and T. Roosevelt)? (12 marks)
    • Popularity of republican leaders such as McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt.
      • McKinley was a civil war veteran and T. Roosevelt fought with distinction in Cuba in the Spanish-American war, this made them well known and popular.
        • McKinley said, "a duty ... to civilisation and humanity, to intervene with force".
    • Popular with ethnic voters/African-Americans since the end of the civil war.
      • Abraham Lincoln led the North to victory during the civil war, they were seen as the party who freed the slaves at the end of the civil war.
      • The Republican Party was formed in 1854 as part of the anti-slavery movement.
    • Popular with big business and urban voters.
      • Republicans supported the gold standard and this was popular with big business, rich farmers and urban workers.
        • Benjamin Strong gave his support for Britain's plan to return to the gold standard
          • To help strengthen the pound Strong kept interest rates low. In 1927 when Britain's economy was struggling he lowered rates again
          • Popularity of specific issues such as imperialism.
            • Republicans tended to follow a more expansionist foreign policy and many people liked this because they believed it would bring money to America.
              • Encourage by the yellow press, business thought that It could be economically benefial like in the Spanish-American war.
            • The Democrats were generally anti-imperialist.
            • McKinley said, "a duty ... to civilisation and humanity, to intervene with force".
      • Democrats wanted lower tariffs to make goods cheaper for normal consumers.
      • Democrats less popular because they supported free coinage of silver which helped poorer farmers and rural areas.
      • Republicans while mostly laisse-faire in their approach to big business they did put on tariffs to make people buy American products.
      • He had an understanding of big business and could be relied upon in saying business and factories would thrive.
      • Encourage by the yellow press, business thought that It could be economically benefial like in the Spanish-American war.
    • Mark Hannah/Electioneering.
      • Mark Hannah managed Mckinleys campaigns of 1896 and 1900 and is often credited with creating modern electioneering techniques.
        • McKinley's popularity would have helped support Hannah in his election campaign for other republicans
        • He had a huge big business empire in coal, iron, shipping and banking and used $100,000 of his own money along with other money raised (around $16 million) from big business to run the campaign for McKinley.
          • He had an understanding of big business and could be relied upon in saying business and factories would thrive.
        • He employed 1500 republican campaign workers/speakers and sent letters out to voters.
        • He created posters which showed the difference between the 2 main parties and suggested if people voted McKinley American factories would thrive.
      • Popularity of specific issues such as imperialism.
        • Republicans tended to follow a more expansionist foreign policy and many people liked this because they believed it would bring money to America.
          • The Democrats were generally anti-imperialist.

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