Experimental designs

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  • Experimental Designs
    • Independent Groups
      • Where 2 or more separate groups of ppts are used in an experiment; each group takes part in one of the conditions.
      • POSITIVES: There are no order effects as people only take part in one condition. Often, the same material can be used in both conditions. Participants can't work out the aim of the study as they only take part in one condition.
      • NEGATIVES:   There are different people (participant variables) in the 2 conditions so that may be why the results are different. You need more people for the study; to get 10 in each group you need 20.
    • Repeated Measures
      • Where only one group of ppts is used in an experiment; this group takes part in both conditions.
      • POSITIVES:    The people in both conditions are the same so there's no ppt variables. You only need 10 people to get 20 results because each person produces 2 scores.
      • NEGATIVES:   There are order effects as people have to do 2 tasks. You may need 2 tasks as they cannot learn the same list twice. Ppts may work out the aim of the study as they take part in both conditions
    • Matched Pairs
      • POSITIVES:   Participant variables are reduced. No order effects. Often, the same material can be used in both conditions.
      • NEGATIVES:Matching is hard, time consuming and not always successful. Some participant variables are still present.
      • Where people with similar qualities are grouped into pairs; each member of the pair takes part in a different condition.

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