Experimenatl design

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  • Experimental Design
    • Experimental design refers to the different ways in which the testing of ppts can be organised in relation to the experimental conditions
    • Independent Groups
      • Is when two separate groups of ppts experience two different conditions of the experiment
      • There are two levels of the IV meaning that all ppts will experience one level of the IV
      • Performance of the two groups would be compared
      • Evaluation
        • Biggest issue = ppts who occupy the different groups aren't the same so differences may be due to the individual and not effect of IV
        • This design is less economical than repeated measure as each ppt only contributes a single result
        • Strength - order effects aren't a problem and ppts are less likely to guess the aim
    • Repeated Measures
      • All ppts take part in all conditions of the experiment
      • The two sets of data from both conditions would be compared to see if there was a difference
      • Evaluation
        • Biggest issue = each ppt has to do two tasks and order of these may be significant
        • Order effects may arise as repeating two tasks may cause fatigue or boredom that may cause performance to deteriorate
        • More likely that ppts will work out the aim of the study so demand characteristics may occur
        • Strengths - ppt variables are controlled and fewer ppts are needed
    • Matched Pairs
      • Ppts are paired/matched based on variables that may affect the DV
      • One member of the pair does condition A and the other does condition B
      • Evaluation
        • Ppts only take part in one condition so order effects and demand characteristics are less of a problem
        • Ppts can never be matched exactly, even when identical twins are matched there will still be important differences between them that may affect DV
        • Matching may be time consuming and expensive so this is less economical than other designs

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