Experimental design

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  • Experimental Design
    • Repeated Measures
      • Uses same participants in each condition
      • Participant variables: intelligence, motivation, past experience etc kept constant between conditions
      • Better statistical tests used because of less variation between conditions
      • Fewer participants required, more economical
      • Order effects e.g learning, fatigue, boredom. May become constant errors when one condition done after another
      • Demand characteristics- guess aim of study, act differently
      • Different tests may be needed
    • Independent measures
      • Uses different participants in each condition
      • Order effects do not influence a second condition
      • Demand characteristics less of a problem
      • Same test can be used
      • Subject variables differ, which could become confounding variables
      • Worse statistical tests, more variation between conditions
      • More participants required, less economical
    • Matched pairs
      • Uses different but similar participants in each condition e.g similar intelligence, age, ability
      • Subject variables kept constant between conditions
      • Better statistical tests used, less variation between conditions
      • Order effects do not occur
      • Less demand characteristics
      • Same test can be used
      • Participant variables can never be perfectly matched
      • Matching participants is time consuming/difficult
      • More participants required, less economical

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