Experiences of Germans under the Nazis

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  • Experiences of Germans under the Nazis
    • How did Hitler inforce fear?
      • Concentration camps
        • Big prisons where enemies were held
          • The aim was to 'correct' people including Jews, Gypsies and the homeless
      • The **
        • Set up in 1925 as Hitlers body guards
          • They were the most feared organisation
            • The SD looked after security
              • The Waffen ** was an elite army unit
                • The Death ** ran the death camps
      • Gestapo
        • The secret police who spied on people
          • Tapped phone calls, opened emails and used informers
            • Caused friends and family to turn on each other and spread fear
      • Regular Police
        • Continued regular work but ignored crimes by Nazis
          • All top jobs went to Nazis
            • New laws meant that the death penalty would be given for very small things
      • Himmler
        • All police forces were controlled by Himmler.
          • He personally reported to Hitler and was a loyal Nazi
    • Propaganda and Censorship
      • Propaganda is the systematic spreading of ideas and information through posters, leaflets and media
        • Censorship is the idea of limiting access to information, ideas and books to prevent knowledge and freedom of thought
      • Rallies
        • Parades and mass rallies were held to celebrate  Hitler's greatness
          • Special arenas wee built that held 1/2 million people. Choirs, bands and air shows were put on to show how impressive and organised the Nazis were
      • Olympics
        • The 1936 Olympics were held in Berlin
          • During the Olympics there were many large propaganda events
            • Nazi state was on show and all Anti-Jewish slogans were removed from streets
      • Newspapers
        • Only stories that showed Nazis doing good things were printed
          • Many negative stories about Jews were also printed
            • If Goebbels didn't approve of stories written they were closed down
      • Books, Theatre and Music
        • Writers were forced to write books, plays and songs that praised Hitler and the Nazis
      • Film
        • All film plots had to show Nazis in a good way and the enemies in a bad way
      • Radio
        • Radio was controlled by Nazis who used it to put across Nazi ideas
          • Radios were produced cheaply so that more Germans tuned in
            • Large speakers were placed in streets, cafes and factories  and broadcasted radio shows
    • Opposition to Hitler
      • Attempts to Kill Hitler
        • There were around 50 attempts to kill Hitler
          • The Kreisau Circle was made of university proffessors, army officers and aristrocrats
            • The discussed assassination but never did anyting
              • They were shocked by Hitler's plan for war and the brutality of their regimes
      • Open Opposition
        • White Rose Group
          • Urged Germans to get rid of Hitler
            • Handed out anti Nazi leaflets and posters and graffitied
              • Some acted as spies by passing on military secrets
        • Religion
          • Leaders of protestant and the catholic church made some criticism of the Nazis
            • The Catholic church spoke out about the killing of mentally and physically disabled people
        • Swing Youth
          • Openly declared their dislike of Nazis by listening to Jazz music and having Jewish friends
      • Passive Resistance and Grumbling
        • When Germans publically shoed they disliked Nazis by refusing to do what they were meant to
          • Grumbling was telling anti-Hitler jokes or complaining about their Jewish friends
    • Sport
      • When Hitler came to power in 1933, Jewish players and sports clubs were excluded and shut down
        • Any titles won by Jews were also taken back
      • Sport was used as propaganda to promote the strength and success of the Aryan race
    • Art
      • Hitler removed any art that didn't comply with his Nazi ideals and promoted the creation of 'healthy' Aryan art
      • The New art pictured Aryans and Nazis as strong and brave warriors
    • Music and Literature
      • In Berlin 1933, 20,000 books were burned to 'cleanse' Germany
      • In-German or Jewish books were encouraged to be burnt by students
      • Books with an anti-war message, such as all quite on the western front, were banned
      • Lively music that was popular in Weimer Germany was quickly banned by Nazis
      • Jazz music was banned due to its origins amongst black people
    • Film
      • Anti-sematic messages were portrayed in most films and were produced to show the 'Jewish problem'
      • Goebbels was a lover of films and he thought they were the best form of propaganda
      • Film was used to show prejudices in 'casual ways'

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