- Existential Security Theory
- Norris and Inglehart state that international studies found no evidence of the link between religious choice and participation. Instead, a lower sense of security means higher levels of religiosity. The demand of religion isn't constant. Rich countries become more secular, whilst the majority of the world become more religious.
- State Welfare and Religiosity
- The more a country spends on welfare, the lower the religious participation. In the past, religion used to provide welfare but now the state does. Although welfare meets the need for security, it does little to answer 'ultimate questions' about the meaning of life like religion.
- Europe VS America
- In Western Europe increasing secularisation could be because health care, social services and pensions reduces poverty and insecurity. America holds individualistic values which creates a greater need for religion.
- Uses quantitative data and doesn't examine people's own definitions of existential security. Religion is only seen as a negative response to deprivation. It ignores positive reasons people have for religious participation and the appeal some religions have for the wealthy.