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  • Exercise
    • Exercise increases heart rate
      • Muscles are made off muscle cells, these use oxygen to release energy from glucose, which use to contract the muscles
      • An increase in muscle activity requires more glucose and oxygen to be supplied to the muscle cell.
        • Extra carbon dioxide needs to be removed from the muscle cells. For this to happen the blood has to flow at a faster rate
    • Glycogen is used during exercise
      • Some glucose from food is stored as glycogen
      • Glycogen's mainly stored in the liver, but each muscle also has its own store
      • During vigorous exercise muscles use glucose rapidly, so some off the stored glycogen is converted back to glucose to provide more energy
    • Anaerobic respiration is used if there's not enough oxygen
      • When you do vigerous exercise and your body cant supply enough oxygen to your muscles, they start doing anaerobic respiration instead of aerobic.
      • Anaerobic just means without oxygen. Its the incomplete breakdown of glucose, which produces lactic acid
        • glucose = energy + lactic acid
      • Lactic acid builds up in the muscles which gets painful
      • It does not release energy as much as aerobic respiration
    • Anaerobic respiration leads to an oxygen debt
      • After resorting to anaerobic respiration when you stop exercising you'll have oxygen debt
      • You'll have to repay the oxygen that you didn't get to your muscles in time because your lungs, heart and blood couldn't keep up with the demand earlier on
      • This means you have to keep breathing hard for a while after you stop, to get oxygen into your blood


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