Excretion 

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  • Excretion
    • Carbon Dioxide
      • Produced as a waste product of aerobic respiration
        • How is it excreted?
          • CO2 from respiring cells
            • Hydrogen Carbonate ions in blood
              • Blood capillaries surrounding the lungs
                • Alveoli
                  • Environment
        • Why is it necessary to excrete it?
          • Combines with HB to form Carbamino-Hb
            • Lower affinity for O2 than normal Hb
              • Less O2 can be transported to respiring cells
              • H ions combine with HB
          • When Hydrogen-Carbonate ions form, Hydrogen ions form
            • H ions combine with HB
          • CO2 dissolves in blood and forms Carbonic Acid
            • Carbonic Acid dissociates
              • pH of blood drops (becomes more acidic)
                • Respiratory Acidosis
                  • Symptoms?
                    • Headache
                    • Difficulty breathing
                    • Drowsiness
                    • Tremor
                    • Confusion
    • The removal of the waste products of metabolism from the body
    • Nitrogenous Compounds
      • Amino Acids cannot be stored
        • The Ornithine Cycle
          • Ornithine
            • Citrulline
              • Arginine
                • Ornithine
                  • Citrulline
                    • Arginine
                    • Urea
                    • Water
              • Urea
              • Water
          • Deamination
            • Amino Acid + O2 ---> Keto Acid + Ammonia
              • Ammonia
        • Detoxification of Alcohol
          • Ethanol
            • Ethanal
              • Ethanoic Acid (Acetate)
                • ACoA
                  • The Krebs Cycle
              • Ethanol Dehydrogenase
              • Ethanal Dehydrogenase
                • Ethanoic Acid (Acetate)
                  • ACoA
                    • The Krebs Cycle
            • Ethanol Dehydrogenase
          • NAD ---> NADH
        • The Liver
          • To and From the Liver
            • Hepatic Artery
            • Hepatic Vein
            • Hepatic Portal Vein
          • Within the Liver
            • Bile Canaliculi
              • Bile Duct
            • Hepatocytes
            • Sinusoids
            • Kupffer Cells
              • Recycling Old Red Blood Cells
                • Bilirubin
                  • Bile
                    • Bile Duct

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