Exchange of materials - BIOLOGY UNIT 3.1

Unit B3 1.1-1.7

a summary of the notes in the revision textbook

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  • LUNGS
    • Exchange of Materials
      • SPORTS DRINKS
        • Sugar replaces the sugar used for energy release in exercise
        • water: hydrates and replaces water lost through sweat
        • Mineral ions to replace those lost whilst sweating
      • ACTIVE TRANSPORT
        • Allows cells to take in substances against the concentration gradient
      • OSMOSIS
        • Diffusion of water across a partially permeable membrane
      • Artificial breathing aids
        • iron lung
        • Breathing aids
        • Positive pressure aids
      • THE GUT
        • Villi are an efficient exchange surface for the absorption of the soluble products of digestion by diffusion or active transport
      • PLANTS
        • Stomata in plant leaves allow carbon dioxide to diffuse into the leaf from the atmosphere
        • leaves are flat and thin with internal air spaces to increase the surface area for exchange of gases
        • Root hair cells increase the surface area of the roots
      • Transpiration
        • Water is lost (by evaporation) through the stomata when they open to let CO2 in.
        • Wilting  can protect the leaf from excessive water loss
    • Breathing in
      • Intercostal muscles contract
      • Ribcage moves up and out
      • Volume of thorax increases,
      • Pressure in thorax decreases, air is drawn in
    • Breathing Out
      • Intercostal muscles retract
      • ribcage moves down and in
      • Diaphragm is 'domed'
      • Volume of thorax decreases
      • pressure in thorax increases and air is forced out
  • Exchange of Materials
    • SPORTS DRINKS
      • Sugar replaces the sugar used for energy release in exercise
      • water: hydrates and replaces water lost through sweat
      • Mineral ions to replace those lost whilst sweating
    • ACTIVE TRANSPORT
      • Allows cells to take in substances against the concentration gradient
    • OSMOSIS
      • Diffusion of water across a partially permeable membrane
    • Artificial breathing aids
      • iron lung
      • Breathing aids
      • Positive pressure aids
    • THE GUT
      • Villi are an efficient exchange surface for the absorption of the soluble products of digestion by diffusion or active transport
    • PLANTS
      • Stomata in plant leaves allow carbon dioxide to diffuse into the leaf from the atmosphere
      • leaves are flat and thin with internal air spaces to increase the surface area for exchange of gases
      • Root hair cells increase the surface area of the roots
    • Transpiration
      • Water is lost (by evaporation) through the stomata when they open to let CO2 in.
      • Wilting  can protect the leaf from excessive water loss

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