Exchanging materials overview for biology

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  • Exchange of Materials
    • Osmosis
      • The movement of water
      • Diffusion
        • Across  partially permeable membrane
        • Area of high WATER concentration to an area of low WATER concentration.
    • Active Transport
      • Cell absorbsion
        • Substances in short supply
          • Absorbs across a partially permeable membrane
        • Absorbs against concentration gradient
        • Absorbs across a partially permeable membrane
        • Ions are absorbed from dilute solutions
          • Root cells absorb mineral ions from dilute solutions in the soil by active transport
        • Glucose-reabsorbed by kidney tubules via active transport
      • Requires energy
    • Sports Drinks
      • Exercise=muscle respiration
        • Release in energy.
        • Glucose used
        • Body sweats to cool down
          • Sweat contains water and mineral ions
            • Too much sweating leads to dehydration
              • Needs to restore levels
            • Sports drinks contain sugar and mineral ions
              • help to  rehydrate
              • drink concentration matches the body fluids the drink is isotonic
    • Exchanging Materials in the lungs
      • Exchange suraface
        • Oxygen is absorbed
          • Then diffuses into the capllaries
        • Carbon Dioxide removed
          • Removed via breathing out after diffusing out of capillaries
        • Efficient Exchange surfaces:
          • Large surface area
            • Alveoli
              • Thin walls
          • Thin walls
          • Efficient transport system
            • Blood supply in animals
            • Alveoli
            • Short diffusion path
          • Gaseous exchange surface
            • Surface area increased by alveoli
              • Lungs are ventilated to maintain a steep diffusion gradient
                • Short diffusion path
        • Ventilating the lungs
          • Part of breathing system
            • In thorax inside rib cage and above the diaphragm.
            • Ventilation movement of air in and out of lungs
          • Breathing in
            • Intercostal muscles contract
            • Rib cage up
            • Diaphragm  flattens
            • Volume of throax increases
            • Pressure in thorax decreases
              • Air in
          • Breathing out
            • intercstal muscles contract
            • Rib cage down
              • Diaphragm = domed
            • Thorax volume decreases
            • Pressure increase air forced out
        • Artificial Breathing Aids
          • Used when a person can not get enough oxgen into their blood
            • Alveoli damage
              • Reduced surface area so less gas exchange
            • Tubes to lungs are narrowed
              • Less air can move through tubes
            • Paralysation
              • Muscles cant move ribcage upwards and outwards
            • Iron lung
              • used during polio paralysitions
                • Cylinder drew out air the chest moved out, a breath taken in.
                  • Vacuum created in cylinder
                    • negative pressure
            • aid that force air into lungs= positive pressure
              • Bags of air= air down trachea
              • The aids are easier to use as they are smaller and can be easily linked to electronic devices such as a computer for easier control and monitoration
        • Exchange in the gut
          • Food digested by small soluble molecules
            • These are then absorbed into the blood
          • Villi line  inner surface of small intestine
            • Exchange surface for food molecules
            • Increase surface area for absoption
            • Thin wallls and capillaries close to wall
          • Soluble products in digestion can be absorbed into villi by active tarnsport or diffusion
        • Exchange in plants
          • Stomata
            • Gasses diffuse in and out the leaf through these tiny holes
              • Oxygen
                • Waste product of photosynethithesis need for respiration.
              • carbon dioxide
                • Need for photosynthesis, waste product of respiration.
            • Evaporation occurs through the stomata also.
            • if a plant is loosing water faster than wtaer is being replaced stomata closes up so the plant does not wilt and die.
          • Leaves are flat and have internal air paces so diffusion does not happen very far
          • Root hair Cells
            • Cover root increasing surface area
              • Aids absoption of mineral ions and water
        • Transpiration
          • Transpiration stream
            • Movement of water up the plant
          • Plannt may dehydrate if rate of evaporationin leaves exceeds the water intake by the roots
          • Evaporation
            • Movement of water up the plant
            • More quickly in hot, bright, windy, dry conditions
          • Guard cells
            • Close to prevent excess water loss
          • Wilting
            • Reduces surface area as leave droop, reducing water loss.

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