Gas exchange

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  • Exchange
    • Ficks law
      • Rate of diffusion =  S.A x   concentration difference/distance
      • Large S.A
      • High concentration gradient
      • Small distance
    • Alveoli
      • Large S.A
        • Millions of alveolus
      • Small distance
        • Single layer of flattened  epithelial cells, alveolus and capillarys
      • High concentration gradient
        • Blood flow in capillaries . Ventilation in lungs
    • Mechanism of breathing
      • Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contrat
        • Transmitted to lungs by fluid filled pleural sac, increasing volume of thorax
      • Increased volume of thorax decreases pressure in the lungs, air is drawn in
      • Pulmonary ventilation
        • ventilation rate x tidal volume
        • Ventilation rate ( breaths per min.)
          • 60/cycle time
        • Tidal volume
    • Lungs
      • Thorax changes shape and size due to intercostal muscles and diaphragm.

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