M:3 S:1 Ventilation in Mammals

Exchange and Transport

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  • Ventilation in Mammals
    • Inspiration
      • Volume of thorax ^
      • Diaphragm _______
      • Pressure decreases
      • Ribcage ^ and < >
      • Air Floods into lungs
      • Intercostal muscles contract
    • Expiration
      • Volume decreases
      • Diaphragm domes
      • Pressure ^
      • Ribcage down and ><
      • Air floods out of lungs
      • Intercostal muscles relax
    • KEY TERMS
      • BREATHING RATE
        • How many breaths are taken
      • VITAL CAPACITY
        • Max vol of air that can be breathed in or out
      • DIAGRAM
    • Spirometer
      • Investigates breathing
      • 1. Oxygen filled chamber with moveable lid
      • 2. Person breathes through tube
      • 3. Lid moves ^ and down when person is breathing in/out
      • 4. Movements recorded by pen attached to lid
        • Writes on rotating drum
          • Spirtometer trace
            • Produces electronic signals, picked up by a data logger
      • 5. Soda lime in tube absorbs CO2 breathed out
      • DIAGRAM
      • Analysing data from a spirometer
        • Graph
          • Breathing rate = peaks on graph
          • Tidal Volume = difference in a peak and trough
          • Vital Capacity = difference in peak and trough of deep breath
          • Oxygen uptake = gradient of slope in time given
    • QUESTIONS
      • 1. What is meant by tidal volume and vital capacity?
      • 2. Describe how a spirometer can be used to measure oxygen uptake
      • 3. Describe the changes that take place in the human throax during inspiration

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