Misleading information

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  • EWT: Misleading information
    • Leading questions
      • Response bias explanation
        • Wording of the question has no effect on the memory of event, but influences the kind of answer given
      • Substitution explanation
        • Wording of question does affect EW memory
          • It interferes with the original memory, distorting its accuracy
    • Loftus and Palmer
      • Looked at the effects of leading questions
      • 5 groups, each given a different verb in the critical question
        • Hit
        • Contacted
        • Bumped
        • Collided
        • Smashed
      • Findings: 'contacted' received a mean speed of 31.8mph and 'smashed' was 40.6mph
      • 45 Pp (students) watched films about a car accident and were then asked questions about speed
      • The leading question biased the EW recall
    • Post event discussion
      • Memory contamination
        • Co witnesses mix information from other witnesses with their own
      • Memory conformity
        • Witnesses go along with eachother to win social approval or because they believe the EW are right
    • Gabbert
      • Paired Pp watched a video of the same crime
      • The video was filmed so each Pp could see elements in the event that the other could not
      • Both Pp discussed what they had seen before individually completing a recall test
      • Findings: 71% of Pp mistakenly recalled aspects of the events that they did not see in the video but had picked up in the post event discussion
      • In the control froup, there was no discussion and no errors in recall
      • Memory conformity
        • Witnesses go along with eachother to win social approval or because they believe the EW are right

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