sleep evolutionary explaination

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  • evolutionary explanation
    • Energy conservation
      • Warm blooded animals expend a lot of energy maintaining body temp
      • Zeppelin and Rechstaffen – smaller animals with high metabolic rates slept more than larger with low rates exceptions are sloths
    • Foraging requirements
      • Herbivores – poor nutrition in plants so cant spend more time sleeping since need to look for food more hours of the day
        • Carnivores high nutrition can afford to rest more cause conserve more energy
    • Predator Avoidance
      • Prey sleep less because need to be vigilant
        • Predators can sleep more
      • Allison and Ciccheti – species with higher risk of predatation slept less exception rabbit (high danger) slept as much as mole (low danger)
    • waste of time
      • Meddis – helps stay out of way of predators when most vulnerable i.e night time
    • REM and NREM sleep
      • NREM is only part of sleep involving EC. Supp by Allison + Ciccheti – larger animals have less NREM but not less REM
        • Shows that NREM important for EC
          • Cappelini found no correlation between body size and NREM
            • More primitive animals e.g crocodile only have NREM
              • NREM evolved for energy cons but REM for brain activity
                • Supp by greater need for sleep in babies brains are developing
    • Cappelini
      • Negative corr between metabolic rates and sleep doesn’t supp EC
        • Small animals have high metabolic rates and less sleep
          • Data supports sleep and foraging
            • Greater foraging requirements restrain time available to sleep
    • predatation risk
      • Animals that sleep in exposed conditions sleep less
        • Time spent sleeping in social groups also reduced although should be safety in numbers
    • IDA- Evolutionary approach
      • Fails to address key aspects of sleep e.g. drive for sleep when sleep deprived so reductionist
  • Shows that NREM important for EC
    • Cappelini found no correlation between body size and NREM
      • More primitive animals e.g crocodile only have NREM
        • NREM evolved for energy cons but REM for brain activity
          • Supp by greater need for sleep in babies brains are developing

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