BY2 - Evolution & Classification

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  • Evolution & Classification
    • Describing the Theory of Evolution by Charles Darwin
      • He recognised species changed over time.
      • Put forward the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection.
      • He observed over-production within a population but numbers remained constant, with high death rates and variation within the species.
        • Survival of the Fittest
      • Those that survive are able to breed and pass on the selective advantage.
        • Offspring inherit the advantageous / beneficial genes.
      • Competition between a species
      • Galapagos Islands - have a common ancestor.
      • Some finches had large beaks for crushing nuts or pointed beaks to get insects etc.
        • Example of Adaptive Radiation
          • The emergence of a new species from a common organism/ancestor introduced into an environment.
      • Fossil Evidence
      • Similarities in DNA between related species - DNA Fingerprinting/ electrophoresis
      • Pentadactyl limb - Homologous structures
    • Taxonomy & Phylogeny
      • Organism classification is based on evolutionary relationships.
      • E.G. Phylogenic Tree
        • Oldest species is at the base of the tree.
          • More recent ones are represented by the ends of the branches.
      • Believed to be between 3 and 30 million species of living organisms on the earth.
        • Taxonomists look for differences and similarities between organisms.
        • Classification System
          • K P Crisps On Fried Gammon Steak
          • Kingdom
          • Phylum
          • Class
          • Order
          • Family
          • Genus
          • Species
      • 5 Kingdoms
        • Prokryote
          • Unicellular
          • No nucleus
          • No internal membrane-based organelles
          • Cell wall is meurin, not cellulose
          • E.G. Bacteria or Blue-Green Algae
        • Protoctista
          • Eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles
          • No tissue differentiation
          • Nuclear membrane
          • Mainly single cell organisms
          • E.G Algae or Slime moulds
        • Plantae
          • Multi-cellular eukaryotes
          • Photosynthetic
          • Cellulose cell wall
          • Autotrophic
            • Produce their own organic material.
        • Fungi
          • Heterotrophic eukaryotes
          • Rigid cell wall of chitin
          • Reproduce by spores
          • Spores are clones because they are reproduced asexually
        • Animalia
          • Heterotrophic multi-cellular eukaryotes
          • No cell wall
          • Nervous coordination
            • Brain
            • Nerve net
          • Membrane bound organelles
    • Phylum
      • Animal kingdom is split in major phyla and several smaller ones.
      • A genus is a group of closely related species and the binomial system includes both a genus and species name.
        • E.G. Grizzly Bear
          • Kingdom = Animalia
            • Phylum = Chordata
              • Class = Mammalia
                • Order = Carnivora
                  • Family = Ursidae
                    • Genus = Ursus
                      • Species = Ursus arctos
      • Binomial Nomenclature Systsem
        • System of naming
        • Generic names and a specific name (lower case)
      • Annelids
        • Earthworm
        • Leech
        • Lugworm
        • Hydrostatic (liquid) skeleton
          • Fluid-filled body cavity
        • Segmented worms with a closed circulatory system
        • Specialised segments for different functions
          • Reproduction
          • Digestion
        • Thin permeable skin for gas exchange
      • Arthropods
        • Largest phylum
        • Insects
          • Locust
          • 6 legs
        • Crustaceans
          • Lobster
          • Crab
        • Arachnids
          • Spiders
          • Scorpions
        • Myriapods
          • Millipedes
          • Centipedes
        • Jointed legs
        • Exoskeleton
          • Limits growth
          • Protects organs
          • Support
          • Limits growth
        • Two pairs of wings (insects)
      • Chordates
        • Vertebrates
          • Vertebral column or backbone
          • Internal skeleton
        • Developed Central Nervous System enclosed in a cranium.
        • Fish
          • Scales
          • Live in water
          • External fertilisation
          • Gills
        • Amphibians
          • Simple lungs
          • Soft moist skin
          • Live on land but water is needed for life cycle
        • Reptiles
          • Dry scaly skin
          • Lungs
          • Lay eggs with leathery shells
          • Land based
        • Birds
          • Lungs
          • Feathers
          • Forelimbs modified for flight
          • Eggs with hard shells
          • Endothermic
        • Mammals
          • Endothermic (warm blooded)
            • Maintains an internal body temperature
          • Lungs
          • Hair
          • Internal gestation
          • Mammary / sweat glands
          • Double circulation

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