Evolution

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  • Evolution
    • Inheritance
      • Vertical
        • Parent to offspring -> Asexual & Sexual
      • Horizontal
        • Prokaryotes & Viruses -> 3 types of exchange. PLASMIDS
      • Horizontal (Eukaryotes)
    • Natural Selection
      • Definition -> non-random increase in the frequency of DNA sequences that increases survival (reduction in deleterious sequences).
      • Selection Selection
        • Male-to-male
        • Female Choice
    • Types of Selection Pressures
      • Disruptive
        • Two extremes favoured
      • Stabalising
        • Average favoured
      • Directional
        • One extreme favoured
    • Genetic Drift
      • Definition -> increase or decrease of the frequencies of the  allels in a population
      • Origin of Genetic Drift
        • Colonisation
          • Founders Effect -> colonising population has different gene frequency from original
        • Neutral Mutation -> Gene mutations change by mutation but effect on phenotype is minor
        • Chance Event -> random changes to gene frequency
    • Speciation
      • Definition -> a group of very similar interbreeding organisms that breed to produce fertile offspring
      • Types
        • Sympatric
          • Ecological
          • Behavioral
        • Allopatric
          • Geographical
      • Isolation -> Mutations -> Natural Selection
    • Hybrid Zones
      • Zones can form in which the ranges of two very similar and closely related species overlap

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