Evolution and speciation

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  • Evolution
    • antibiotic resistance
      • the evolutions of antibiotic resistance can be explained by natural selection
      • to prevent the bacteria becoming resistant to all known antibiotics, more drugs need to be developed.
      • devdeloping drugs takes time and money
      • to check antibiotic resistance, disks soaked in different antibiotics are placed in bacteria
        • where bacteria cant grow, the disk will stay clear, where it growns, the bacteria is resistant to that antibiotic
          • there wil be a control disk with no antibiotic
    • Darwins observations
      • organisms produce more than survive
      • theres variations in the characteristics of members of the same species
      • some of the characteristics can be passed on from one generation to the next
      • individuals that are best adapted to their environment are more likely to survive
    • natural selection
      • 1: random genetic mutation give variation in alleles
      • 2: this allele may be favourable, and make thew organism better adapted to the environment
      • 3: this select advantage give it better chance of survivng to an age of reproduction
      • 4: the advantageous allele is passed on to the next generation
      • 5: this happens over many generations until the alleles frequency has increased and this wil lead to evolution
    • speciation
      • evolution can lead to speciation. the new species and the old species can no longer reproduce and produce fertile offspring

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