Civil Rights events in

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  • Events in the 1950's.
    • 1950 - McLaurin vs. Oklahoma State.
      • Upheld the rights of black students to receive equal higher education.
    • 1954 - Brown vs. Board of Education.
      • Supported by the NAACP.
      • The BoE violated the 14th amendment
        • Failure to provide Linda Brown an elementary school close to her home.
      • Segregation in education "deprive(s) children of the minority group equal educational opportunities."
        • Plessy vs Ferguson was reversed in education.
      • The South was reluctant to respond.
      • BROWN 2 1955
        • Desegregation in education was at "all deliberate speed"
        • Change was delayed for as long as possible in the South
    • Montgomery Bus Boycotts 1955
      • Buses were segregated across the south. Blacks had to sit at the back or stand.
      • The boycott was not the first of it's kind to take place but it attracted the most attention
      • It began with the arrest of Rosa Parks who refused to give up her seat to a white man.
      • In response to her arrest, a bus boycott was organised by the NAACP. The MIA was created, the president being MLK.
        • Initially, the MIA didn't demand desegregation, just polite and fair service.
        • Demands were rejected and blacks were harassed for their participation.
        • As the boycott progressed, so did the demand for the desegregation of the buses.
      • In 1956, a federal district court ruled in the case of Browder vs. Gayle that segregation on buses was unconstitutional.
        • This ruling was upheld in the Supreme Court later that year.
      • Why was the Montgomery Bus Boycott important?
        • It lead to the Browder vs. Gayle ruling that declared segregation on buses unconstitutional.
        • Boosted the morale of the civil rights movement.
          • The black community had taken action, stood firm and emerged victorious.
        • Demonstrated the capacity of non-violent protest to achieve change.
        • The media attention helped to create northern support.
        • Lead to the creation of the SCLC.
    • Little Rock, Arkansas
      • September 1957, 9 black students attempted to attend Central High School.
      • The governor of Arkansas, Faubus, prevented their entry by the use of the National Guard,
        • Federal court ordered for the withdrawal of the National Guard.
      • Crowds were outside the school taunting and insulting the children as they tried to enter.
      • Eisenhower was forced to intervene by using the National Guard to escort the students into school.
        • Troops were used for the rest of the year to keep the students safe.
      • This reinforced northern white perceptions about race relationships in the South.
      • These events were televised and it was easy tomake comparisons between the dignified behavior of the black students and the crowds preventing their entry.

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