Evaluating social influence on gender

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  • Created by: Robyn
  • Created on: 14-01-14 14:11
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  • Evaluating social influence on gender
    • SLT
      • Modelling
        • initial source of evidence
          • bobo doll= effect of adult model on child behaviour
        • Perry and Bussey
          • investigated effect on gender development
          • children imitated same sex model's behaviour
          • effects of modelling limited by stereotypes
      • Direct tuition vs modelling
        • do not always model same-sex model
        • martin et al
          • investigated on gender development
          • labelled toys
          • preschool boys= played with 'boys toys'
          • wouldn't play with 'girls toys'
          • instruction more important than modelling
    • sources of influence
      • parents
        • Smith and Lloyd
          • mothers played with babies
            • presented as boy or girl
          • mother selected gender appropriate toys
          • responded more actively when a 'boy' showed motor activity
        • differential reinforcement affects behaviour
          • Fagot et al
            • parents show clearest patterns of differential reinforcemnet
            • children are quickest to develop gender preferences
              • parents show clearest patterns of differential reinforcemnet
      • peers
        • prime socialising agent of gender development
        • unimportant in early childhood
        • reinforces existing gender stereotypes
        • Lamb and Roopnarine
          • preschool children playing
          • male-typed behaviour reinforced in girls
            • behaviour continued for less time than in boys
          • peer reinforcement= reminder
      • Media
        • gender stereotypes
          • even in young children
        • hard to get evidence
          • very few children have no tv influence
            • notel, unitel and multitel study
        • pressure on media to alter perceptions of gender
          • media set previous perceptions
        • Pingree
          • stereotyping reduced
            • children shown non-stereotypical women
          • pre-adolescent boys= stronger stereotypes
            • backlash may occur- boys this age want to oppose adults
          • backlash may occur- boys this age want to oppose adults
        • media's effects reinforce status quo
          • signorelli and Bacue
            • examined 30 years of tv
            • little change in gender stereotypes
              • examined 30 years of tv
    • Response to criticism
      • an adevelopmental theory
        • Durkin
          • Bandura's theory= processes of learning same at any age
          • however some sequence to Bandura
            • cognitive-developmental theories
              • why children attend to same sex stereotypes and ignore 'out-group'
      • Active involvement
        • social learning approach
          • protrays child as passive in development
        • children learn of sanctions against cross-gender behaviour
          • behaviour then regulated
  • SLT
    • Active involvement
      • social learning approach
        • protrays child as passive in development
      • children learn of sanctions against cross-gender behaviour
        • behaviour then regulated
    • includes active involvement
    • shift in reinforcament
      • parents to peers
        • because of self evaluation and self regulation
      • Bussey and Bandura

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