evaluation of the origins of psychology

  • Created by: imyimss
  • Created on: 28-09-18 19:51
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  • EVALUATING THE ORIGINS OF PSYCHOLOGY
    • Wund's methods were unreliable
      • relied on 'non-observable' responses
        • participants could report on own conscious experience but processes themselves were unobservable
      • introspective experimental results were not reliably reproduced by other researchers
      • behaviourists, Pavlov + Thorndike, were already producing reliable results and discovering principles that could generalise humans
    • A scientific approach tests assumptions about behaviou
      • relies on objective and systematic methods of observations so knowledge acquired is more than passive acceptance of theories
      • establishes cause of behaviour from empirical and replicable methods
      • scientific theories that no longer fit the fats can be refined or abandoned
        • scientific knowledge is self-corrective
    • a scientific approach is not always appropriate
      • if human behaviour isnt subject to laws / regularities of scientific method then predictions become impossible and methods inappropriate
      • most subject matter in psychology is unobservable so cannot be measured with degree of accuracy
      • psychological knowledge is inferential
        • gap between data obtained and the theories put forward to explain this data
    • Introspection isn't particularly accurate
      • Nisbett + Wilson claim that we have very little knowledge of the cause of a processes underlying our behaviour and attitudes
      • implicit attitudes
        • a person may be implicitly racist which influences the way they react to different ethnic groups
      • such attitudes exist outside of conscious awareness, introspection wouldn't uncover them
        • challenges value of introspective reports of behaviour
    • Introspection is still useful in scientific psychology
      • it hasn't been abandoned entirely
      • Hunter et al used introspective methods as a may of making happiness a measurable phenomenon  in 2003
      • introspection offers way of understanding momentary conditions that affect happiness
        • could help them improve quality of life

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