European Détente

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  • European détente
    • The Basic Treaty (1972)
      • Aimed to normalise relations between the 2 Germanies.
      • Allowed for other European countries to establish diplomatic relations with the GDR.
      • Led to both the GDR and the FRG becoming members of the EU in Sept 1973
    • The Berlin Agreement (1971)
      • Quadripartite agreement on Berlin signed guaranteeing Western access to West Berlin.
      • The West recognised East Berlin as part of the GDR, and not just a Soviet occupation-zone.
      • Agreed that West and East Germany would remain separate and the 4 power presence established in 1945 would remain.
      • Opened the way for further Ostpolitik. Also created a positive climate for American-Soviet détente.
    • Willy Brandt
      • Took over from Adenauer as W. German chancellor in 1969
      • Brandt disregarded the Hallstein Doctrine which stated that West Germany would not establish diplomatic relations with the GDR.
      • Was committed to 'Ostpolitik' - reducing the consequences of division between East and West.
      • Unlike Adenauer (who was committed to the reunification of Germany), Brandt accepted the notion of 2 states within 1 German nation.
    • The Helsinki Accords
      • Basket 1:Security in Europe
      • Basket II: Cooperation in the fields of economics, of science, and technology and of the environment
      • Basket III: Cooperation in humanitarian and other fields
      • The whole of Europe, Canada and the US participated.
      • The USA was worried that NATO's role in Europe would be marginalised by the feeling of security in Western Europe
      • Both superpowers welcomed the relaxation of East-West confrontation; some historians regard the Helsinki Accords as the high point in détente

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